A long list of CIA atrocities.

The following article was initially published in 1997. It is in part based on the work of William Blum. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions since World War II, 1995 (GR Ed. M. Ch.)
By Steve Kangas
The following timeline describes just a few of the hundreds of atrocities and crimes committed by the CIA. (1)
CIA operations follow the same recurring script. First, American business interests abroad are threatened by a popular or democratically elected leader. The people support their leader because he intends to conduct land reform, strengthen unions, redistribute wealth, nationalize foreign-owned industry, and regulate business to protect workers, consumers and the environment. So, on behalf of American business, and often with their help, the CIA mobilizes the opposition. First it identifies right-wing groups within the country (usually the military), and offers them a deal: “We’ll put you in power if you maintain a favorable business climate for us.”
The Agency then hires, trains and works with them to overthrow the existing government (usually a democracy). It uses every trick in the book: propaganda, stuffed ballot boxes, purchased elections, extortion, blackmail, sexual intrigue, false stories about opponents in the local media, infiltration and disruption of opposing political parties, kidnapping, beating, torture, intimidation, economic sabotage, death squads and even assassination. These efforts culminate in a military coup, which installs a right-wing dictator.
The CIA trains the dictator’s security apparatus to crack down on the traditional enemies of big business, using interrogation, torture and murder. The victims are said to be “communists,” but almost always they are just peasants, liberals, moderates, labor union leaders, political opponents and advocates of free speech and democracy. Widespread human rights abuses follow.
This scenario has been repeated so many times that the CIA actually teaches it in a special school, the notorious “School of the Americas.” (It opened in Panama but later moved to Fort Benning, Georgia.) Critics have nicknamed it the “School of the Dictators” and “School of the Assassins.” Here, the CIA trains Latin American military officers how to conduct coups, including the use of interrogation, torture and murder.
The Association for Responsible Dissent estimates that by 1987, 6 million people had died as a result of CIA covert operations. (2) Former State Department official William Blum correctly calls this an “American Holocaust.”
The CIA justifies these actions as part of its war against communism. But most coups do not involve a communist threat. Unlucky nations are targeted for a wide variety of reasons: not only threats to American business interests abroad, but also liberal or even moderate social reforms, political instability, the unwillingness of a leader to carry out Washington’s dictates, and declarations of neutrality in the Cold War. Indeed, nothing has infuriated CIA Directors quite like a nation’s desire to stay out of the Cold War.
The ironic thing about all this intervention is that it frequently fails to achieve American objectives. Often the newly installed dictator grows comfortable with the security apparatus the CIA has built for him. He becomes an expert at running a police state. And because the dictator knows he cannot be overthrown, he becomes independent and defiant of Washington’s will. The CIA then finds it cannot overthrow him, because the police and military are under the dictator’s control, afraid to cooperate with American spies for fear of torture and execution. The only two options for the U.S at this point are impotence or war. Examples of this “boomerang effect” include the Shah of Iran, General Noriega and Saddam Hussein. The boomerang effect also explains why the CIA has proven highly successful at overthrowing democracies, but a wretched failure at overthrowing dictatorships.
The following timeline should confirm that the CIA as we know it should be abolished and replaced by a true information-gathering and analysis organization. The CIA cannot be reformed — it is institutionally and culturally corrupt.
The culture we lost — Secretary of State Henry Stimson refuses to endorse a code-breaking operation, saying, “Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail.”
COI created — In preparation for World War II, President Roosevelt creates the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). General William “Wild Bill” Donovan heads the new intelligence service.
OSS created — Roosevelt restructures COI into something more suitable for covert action, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Donovan recruits so many of the nation’s rich and powerful that eventually people joke that “OSS” stands for “Oh, so social!” or “Oh, such snobs!”
Italy — Donovan recruits the Catholic Church in Rome to be the center of Anglo-American spy operations in Fascist Italy. This would prove to be one of America’s most enduring intelligence alliances in the Cold War.
OSS is abolished — The remaining American information agencies cease covert actions and return to harmless information gathering and analysis.
Operation PAPERCLIP – While other American agencies are hunting down Nazi war criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community is smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against the Soviets. The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union. With full U.S. blessing, he creates the “Gehlen Organization,” a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their networks in Russia.
These include SS intelligence officers Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the “Butcher of Lyon”), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) and SS Colonel Otto Skorzeny (a personal friend of Hitler’s). The Gehlen Organization supplies the U.S. with its only intelligence on the Soviet Union for the next ten years, serving as a bridge between the abolishment of the OSS and the creation of the CIA. However, much of the “intelligence” the former Nazis provide is bogus. Gehlen inflates Soviet military capabilities at a time when Russia is still rebuilding its devastated society, in order to inflate his own importance to the Americans (who might otherwise punish him). In 1948, Gehlen almost convinces the Americans that war is imminent, and the West should make a preemptive strike. In the 50s he produces a fictitious “missile gap.” To make matters worse, the Russians have thoroughly penetrated the Gehlen Organization with double agents, undermining the very American security that Gehlen was supposed to protect.
Greece — President Truman requests military aid to Greece to support right-wing forces fighting communist rebels. For the rest of the Cold War, Washington and the CIA will back notorious Greek leaders with deplorable human rights records.
CIA created — President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947, creating the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council. The CIA is accountable to the president through the NSC — there is no democratic or congressional oversight. Its charter allows the CIA to “perform such other functions and duties… as the National Security Council may from time to time direct.” This loophole opens the door to covert action and dirty tricks.
Covert-action wing created — The CIA recreates a covert action wing, innocuously called the Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall Street lawyer Frank Wisner. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities include “propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action, including sabotage, antisabotage, demolition and evacuation procedures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world.”
Italy — The CIA corrupts democratic elections in Italy, where Italian communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes, broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition leaders, and infiltrates and disrupts their organizations. It works — the communists are defeated.
Radio Free Europe — The CIA creates its first major propaganda outlet, Radio Free Europe. Over the next several decades, its broadcasts are so blatantly false that for a time it is considered illegal to publish transcripts of them in the U.S.
Late 40s
Operation MOCKINGBIRD — The CIA begins recruiting American news organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators of propaganda. The effort is headed by Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and Philip Graham. Graham is publisher of The Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Eventually, the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS, Time, Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more. By the CIA’s own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400 journalists will become CIA assets.
Iran – CIA overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo.
Operation MK-ULTRA — Inspired by North Korea’s brainwashing program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. The most notorious part of this project involves giving LSD and other drugs to American subjects without their knowledge or against their will, causing several to commit suicide. However, the operation involves far more than this. Funded in part by the Rockefeller and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda, brainwashing, public relations, advertising, hypnosis, and other forms of suggestion.
Guatemala — CIA overthrows the democratically elected Jacob Arbenz in a military coup. Arbenz has threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a series of right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies will kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.
North Vietnam — CIA officer Edward Lansdale spends four years trying to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam, using all the usual dirty tricks. The CIA also attempts to legitimize a tyrannical puppet regime in South Vietnam, headed by Ngo Dinh Diem. These efforts fail to win the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese because the Diem government is opposed to true democracy, land reform and poverty reduction measures. The CIA’s continuing failure results in escalating American intervention, culminating in the Vietnam War.
Hungary — Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt by broadcasting Khruschev’s Secret Speech, in which he denounced Stalin. It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. This aid fails to materialize as Hungarians launch a doomed armed revolt, which only invites a major Soviet invasion. The conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.
Laos — The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year trying to nullify Laos’ democratic elections. The problem is the Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a member of any coalition government. In the late 50s, the CIA even creates an “Armee Clandestine” of Asian mercenaries to attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIA’s army suffers numerous defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of all Laotians will eventually become refugees, many living in caves.
Haiti — The U.S. military helps “Papa Doc” Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the “Tonton Macoutes,” who terrorize the population with machetes.
They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign. The U.S. does not protest their dismal human rights record.
The Bay of Pigs — The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Castro’s Cuba. But “Operation Mongoose” fails, due to poor planning, security and backing. The planners had imagined that the invasion will spark a popular uprising against Castro -– which never happens. A promised American air strike also never occurs. This is the CIA’s first public setback, causing President Kennedy to fire CIA Director Allen Dulles.
Dominican Republic — The CIA assassinates Rafael Trujillo, a murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930. Trujillo’s business interests have grown so large (about 60 percent of the economy) that they have begun competing with American business interests.
Ecuador — The CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man.
Congo (Zaire) — The CIA assassinates the democratically elected Patrice Lumumba. However, public support for Lumumba’s politics runs so high that the CIA cannot clearly install his opponents in power. Four years of political turmoil follow.
Dominican Republic — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Juan Bosch in a military coup. The CIA installs a repressive, right-wing junta.
Ecuador — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows President Arosemana, whose independent (not socialist) policies have become unacceptable to Washington. A military junta assumes command, cancels the 1964 elections, and begins abusing human rights.
Brazil — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the democratically elected government of Joao Goulart. The junta that replaces it will, in the next two decades, become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo Branco will create Latin America’s first death squads, or bands of secret police who hunt down “communists” for torture, interrogation and murder. Often these “communists” are no more than Branco’s political opponents. Later it is revealed that the CIA trains the death squads.
Indonesia — The CIA overthrows the democratically elected Sukarno with a military coup. The CIA has been trying to eliminate Sukarno since 1957, using everything from attempted assassination to sexual intrigue, for nothing more than his declaring neutrality in the Cold War. His successor, General Suharto, will massacre between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being “communist.” The CIA supplies the names of countless suspects.
Dominican Republic — A popular rebellion breaks out, promising to reinstall Juan Bosch as the country’s elected leader. The revolution is crushed when U.S. Marines land to uphold the military regime by force. The CIA directs everything behind the scenes.
Greece — With the CIA’s backing, the king removes George Papandreous as prime minister. Papandreous has failed to vigorously support U.S. interests in Greece.
Congo (Zaire) — A CIA-backed military coup installs Mobutu Sese Seko as dictator. The hated and repressive Mobutu exploits his desperately poor country for billions.
The Ramparts Affair — The radical magazine Ramparts begins a series of unprecedented anti-CIA articles. Among their scoops: the CIA has paid the University of Michigan $25 million dollars to hire “professors” to train South Vietnamese students in covert police methods. MIT and other universities have received similar payments. Ramparts also reveals that the National Students’ Association is a CIA front. Students are sometimes recruited through blackmail and bribery, including draft deferments.
Greece — A CIA-backed military coup overthrows the government two days before the elections. The favorite to win was George Papandreous, the liberal candidate. During the next six years, the “reign of the colonels” — backed by the CIA — will usher in the widespread use of torture and murder against political opponents. When a Greek ambassador objects to President Johnson about U.S. plans for Cyprus, Johnson tells him: “Fuck your parliament and your constitution.”
Operation PHEONIX — The CIA helps South Vietnamese agents identify and then murder alleged Viet Cong leaders operating in South Vietnamese villages. According to a 1971 congressional report, this operation killed about 20,000 “Viet Cong.”
Operation CHAOS — The CIA has been illegally spying on American citizens since 1959, but with Operation CHAOS, President Johnson dramatically boosts the effort. CIA agents go undercover as student radicals to spy on and disrupt campus organizations protesting the Vietnam War. They are searching for Russian instigators, which they never find. CHAOS will eventually spy on 7,000 individuals and 1,000 organizations.
Bolivia — A CIA-organized military operation captures legendary guerilla Che Guevara. The CIA wants to keep him alive for interrogation, but the Bolivian government executes him to prevent worldwide calls for clemency.
Uruguay — The notorious CIA torturer Dan Mitrione arrives in Uruguay, a country torn with political strife. Whereas right-wing forces previously used torture only as a last resort, Mitrione convinces them to use it as a routine, widespread practice. “The precise pain, in the precise place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect,” is his motto. The torture techniques he teaches to the death squads rival the Nazis’. He eventually becomes so feared that revolutionaries will kidnap and murder him a year later.
Cambodia — The CIA overthrows Prince Sahounek, who is highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He is replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, who immediately throws Cambodian troops into battle. This unpopular move strengthens once minor opposition parties like the Khmer Rouge, which achieves power in 1975 and massacres millions of its own people.
Bolivia — After half a decade of CIA-inspired political turmoil, a CIA-backed military coup overthrows the leftist President Juan Torres. In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer will have over 2,000 political opponents arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed.
Haiti — “Papa Doc” Duvalier dies, leaving his 19-year old son “Baby Doc” Duvalier the dictator of Haiti. His son continues his bloody reign with full knowledge of the CIA.
The Case-Zablocki Act — Congress passes an act requiring congressional review of executive agreements. In theory, this should make CIA operations more accountable. In fact, it is only marginally effective.
Cambodia — Congress votes to cut off CIA funds for its secret war in Cambodia.
Wagergate Break-in — President Nixon sends in a team of burglars to wiretap Democratic offices at Watergate. The team members have extensive CIA histories, including James McCord, E. Howard Hunt and five of the Cuban burglars. They work for the Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP), which does dirty work like disrupting Democratic campaigns and laundering Nixon’s illegal campaign contributions. CREEP’s activities are funded and organized by another CIA front, the Mullen Company.
Chile — The CIA overthrows and assassinates Salvador Allende, Latin America’s first democratically elected socialist leader. The problems begin when Allende nationalizes American-owned firms in Chile. ITT offers the CIA $1 million for a coup (reportedly refused). The CIA replaces Allende with General Augusto Pinochet, who will torture and murder thousands of his own countrymen in a crackdown on labor leaders and the political left.
CIA begins internal investigations — William Colby, the Deputy Director for Operations, orders all CIA personnel to report any and all illegal activities they know about. This information is later reported to Congress.
Watergate Scandal — The CIA’s main collaborating newspaper in America, The Washington Post, reports Nixon’s crimes long before any other newspaper takes up the subject. The two reporters, Woodward and Bernstein, make almost no mention of the CIA’s many fingerprints all over the scandal. It is later revealed that Woodward was a Naval intelligence briefer to the White House, and knows many important intelligence figures, including General Alexander Haig. His main source, “Deep Throat,” is probably one of those.
CIA Director Helms Fired — President Nixon fires CIA Director Richard Helms for failing to help cover up the Watergate scandal. Helms and Nixon have always disliked each other. The new CIA director is William Colby, who is relatively more open to CIA reform.
CHAOS exposed — Pulitzer prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh publishes a story about Operation CHAOS, the domestic surveillance and infiltration of anti-war and civil rights groups in the U.S. The story sparks national outrage.
Angleton fired — Congress holds hearings on the illegal domestic spying efforts of James Jesus Angleton, the CIA’s chief of counterintelligence. His efforts included mail-opening campaigns and secret surveillance of war protesters. The hearings result in his dismissal from the CIA.
House clears CIA in Watergate — The House of Representatives clears the CIA of any complicity in Nixon’s Watergate break-in.
The Hughes Ryan Act — Congress passes an amendment requiring the president to report nonintelligence CIA operations to the relevant congressional committees in a timely fashion.
Australia — The CIA helps topple the democratically elected, left-leaning government of Prime Minister Edward Whitlam. The CIA does this by giving an ultimatum to its Governor-General, John Kerr. Kerr, a longtime CIA collaborator, exercises his constitutional right to dissolve the Whitlam government. The Governor-General is a largely ceremonial position appointed by the Queen; the Prime Minister is democratically elected. The use of this archaic and never-used law stuns the nation.
Angola — Eager to demonstrate American military resolve after its defeat in Vietnam, Henry Kissinger launches a CIA-backed war in Angola. Contrary to Kissinger’s assertions, Angola is a country of little strategic importance and not seriously threatened by communism. The CIA backs the brutal leader of UNITAS, Jonas Savimbi. This polarizes Angolan politics and drives his opponents into the arms of Cuba and the Soviet Union for survival. Congress will cut off funds in 1976, but the CIA is able to run the war off the books until 1984, when funding is legalized again. This entirely pointless war kills over 300,000 Angolans.
“The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence” — Victor Marchetti and John Marks publish this whistle-blowing history of CIA crimes and abuses. Marchetti has spent 14 years in the CIA, eventually becoming an executive assistant to the Deputy Director of Intelligence. Marks has spent five years as an intelligence official in the State Department.
“Inside the Company” — Philip Agee publishes a diary of his life inside the CIA. Agee has worked in covert operations in Latin America during the 60s, and details the crimes in which he took part.
Congress investigates CIA wrong-doing — Public outrage compels Congress to hold hearings on CIA crimes. Senator Frank Church heads the Senate investigation (“The Church Committee”), and Representative Otis Pike heads the House investigation. (Despite a 98 percent incumbency reelection rate, both Church and Pike are defeated in the next elections.) The investigations lead to a number of reforms intended to increase the CIA’s accountability to Congress, including the creation of a standing Senate committee on intelligence. However, the reforms prove ineffective, as the Iran/Contra scandal will show. It turns out the CIA can control, deal with or sidestep Congress with ease.
The Rockefeller Commission — In an attempt to reduce the damage done by the Church Committee, President Ford creates the “Rockefeller Commission” to whitewash CIA history and propose toothless reforms. The commission’s namesake, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, is himself a major CIA figure. Five of the commission’s eight members are also members of the Council on Foreign Relations, a CIA-dominated organization.
Iran — The CIA fails to predict the fall of the Shah of Iran, a longtime CIA puppet, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalists who are furious at the CIA’s backing of SAVAK, the Shah’s bloodthirsty secret police. In revenge, the Muslims take 52 Americans hostage in the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
Afghanistan — The Soviets invade Afghanistan. The CIA immediately begins supplying arms to any faction willing to fight the occupying Soviets. Such indiscriminate arming means that when the Soviets leave Afghanistan, civil war will erupt. Also, fanatical Muslim extremists now possess state-of-the-art weaponry. One of these is Sheik Abdel Rahman, who will become involved in the World Trade Center bombing in New York.
El Salvador — An idealistic group of young military officers, repulsed by the massacre of the poor, overthrows the right-wing government. However, the U.S. compels the inexperienced officers to include many of the old guard in key positions in their new government. Soon, things are back to “normal” — the military government is repressing and killing poor civilian protesters. Many of the young military and civilian reformers, finding themselves powerless, resign in disgust.
Nicaragua — Anastasios Samoza II, the CIA-backed dictator, falls. The Marxist Sandinistas take over government, and they are initially popular because of their commitment to land and anti-poverty reform. Samoza had a murderous and hated personal army called the National Guard. Remnants of the Guard will become the Contras, who fight a CIA-backed guerilla war against the Sandinista government throughout the 1980s.
El Salvador — The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, pleads with President Carter “Christian to Christian” to stop aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Shortly afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolves into civil war, with the peasants in the hills fighting against the military government. The CIA and U.S. Armed Forces supply the government with overwhelming military and intelligence superiority. CIA-trained death squads roam the countryside, committing atrocities like that of El Mazote in 1982, where they massacre between 700 and 1000 men, women and children. By 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans will be killed.
Iran/Contra Begins — The CIA begins selling arms to Iran at high prices, using the profits to arm the Contras fighting the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. President Reagan vows that the Sandinistas will be “pressured” until “they say ‘uncle.’” The CIA’s Freedom Fighter’s Manual disbursed to the Contras includes instruction on economic sabotage, propaganda, extortion, bribery, blackmail, interrogation, torture, murder and political assassination.
Honduras — The CIA gives Honduran military officers the Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983, which teaches how to torture people. Honduras’ notorious “Battalion 316” then uses these techniques, with the CIA’s full knowledge, on thousands of leftist dissidents. At least 184 are murdered.
The Boland Amendment — The last of a series of Boland Amendments is passed. These amendments have reduced CIA aid to the Contras; the last one cuts it off completely. However, CIA Director William Casey is already prepared to “hand off” the operation to Colonel Oliver North, who illegally continues supplying the Contras through the CIA’s informal, secret, and self-financing network. This includes “humanitarian aid” donated by Adolph Coors and William Simon, and military aid funded by Iranian arms sales.
Eugene Hasenfus — Nicaragua shoots down a C-123 transport plane carrying military supplies to the Contras. The lone survivor, Eugene Hasenfus, turns out to be a CIA employee, as are the two dead pilots. The airplane belongs to Southern Air Transport, a CIA front. The incident makes a mockery of President Reagan’s claims that the CIA is not illegally arming the Contras.
Iran/Contra Scandal — Although the details have long been known, the Iran/Contra scandal finally captures the media’s attention in 1986. Congress holds hearings, and several key figures (like Oliver North) lie under oath to protect the intelligence community. CIA Director William Casey dies of brain cancer before Congress can question him. All reforms enacted by Congress after the scandal are purely cosmetic.
Haiti — Rising popular revolt in Haiti means that “Baby Doc” Duvalier will remain “President for Life” only if he has a short one. The U.S., which hates instability in a puppet country, flies the despotic Duvalier to the South of France for a comfortable retirement. The CIA then rigs the upcoming elections in favor of another right-wing military strongman. However, violence keeps the country in political turmoil for another four years. The CIA tries to strengthen the military by creating the National Intelligence Service (SIN), which suppresses popular revolt through torture and assassination.
Panama — The U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator of its own making, General Manuel Noriega. Noriega has been on the CIA’s payroll since 1966, and has been transporting drugs with the CIA’s knowledge since 1972. By the late 80s, Noriega’s growing independence and intransigence have angered Washington… so out he goes.
Haiti — Competing against 10 comparatively wealthy candidates, leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. After only eight months in power, however, the CIA-backed military deposes him. More military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. As popular opinion calls for Aristide’s return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign painting the courageous priest as mentally unstable.
The Gulf War — The U.S. liberates Kuwait from Iraq. But Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, is another creature of the CIA. With U.S. encouragement, Hussein invaded Iran in 1980. During this costly eight-year war, the CIA built up Hussein’s forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence, training and financial backing. This cemented Hussein’s power at home, allowing him to crush the many internal rebellions that erupted from time to time, sometimes with poison gas. It also gave him all the military might he needed to conduct further adventurism — in Kuwait, for example.
The Fall of the Soviet Union — The CIA fails to predict this most important event of the Cold War. This suggests that it has been so busy undermining governments that it hasn’t been doing its primary job: gathering and analyzing information. The fall of the Soviet Union also robs the CIA of its reason for existence: fighting communism. This leads some to accuse the CIA of intentionally failing to predict the downfall of the Soviet Union. Curiously, the intelligence community’s budget is not significantly reduced after the demise of communism.
Economic Espionage — In the years following the end of the Cold War, the CIA is increasingly used for economic espionage. This involves stealing the technological secrets of competing foreign companies and giving them to American ones. Given the CIA’s clear preference for dirty tricks over mere information gathering, the possibility of serious criminal behavior is very great indeed.
Haiti — The chaos in Haiti grows so bad that President Clinton has no choice but to remove the Haitian military dictator, Raoul Cedras, on threat of U.S. invasion. The U.S. occupiers do not arrest Haiti’s military leaders for crimes against humanity, but instead ensure their safety and rich retirements. Aristide is returned to power only after being forced to accept an agenda favorable to the country’s ruling class.
In a speech before the CIA celebrating its 50th anniversary, President Clinton said: “By necessity, the American people will never know the full story of your courage.”
Clinton’s is a common defense of the CIA: namely, the American people should stop criticizing the CIA because they don’t know what it really does. This, of course, is the heart of the problem in the first place. An agency that is above criticism is also above moral behavior and reform. Its secrecy and lack of accountability allows its corruption to grow unchecked.
Furthermore, Clinton’s statement is simply untrue. The history of the agency is growing painfully clear, especially with the declassification of historical CIA documents. We may not know the details of specific operations, but we do know, quite well, the general behavior of the CIA. These facts began emerging nearly two decades ago at an ever-quickening pace. Today we have a remarkably accurate and consistent picture, repeated in country after country, and verified from countless different directions.
The CIA’s response to this growing knowledge and criticism follows a typical historical pattern. (Indeed, there are remarkable parallels to the Medieval Church’s fight against the Scientific Revolution.) The first journalists and writers to reveal the CIA’s criminal behavior were harassed and censored if they were American writers, and tortured and murdered if they were foreigners. (See Philip Agee’s On the Run for an example of early harassment.) However, over the last two decades the tide of evidence has become overwhelming, and the CIA has found that it does not have enough fingers to plug every hole in the dike. This is especially true in the age of the Internet, where information flows freely among millions of people. Since censorship is impossible, the Agency must now defend itself with apologetics. Clinton’s “Americans will never know” defense is a prime example.
Another common apologetic is that “the world is filled with unsavory characters, and we must deal with them if we are to protect American interests at all.” There are two things wrong with this. First, it ignores the fact that the CIA has regularly spurned alliances with defenders of democracy, free speech and human rights, preferring the company of military dictators and tyrants. The CIA had moral options available to them, but did not take them.
Second, this argument begs several questions. The first is: “Which American interests?” The CIA has courted right-wing dictators because they allow wealthy Americans to exploit the country’s cheap labor and resources. But poor and middle-class Americans pay the price whenever they fight the wars that stem from CIA actions, from Vietnam to the Gulf War to Panama. The second begged question is: “Why should American interests come at the expense of other peoples’ human rights?”
The CIA should be abolished, its leadership dismissed and its relevant members tried for crimes against humanity. Our intelligence community should be rebuilt from the ground up, with the goal of collecting and analyzing information. As for covert action, there are two moral options. The first one is to eliminate covert action completely. But this gives jitters to people worried about the Adolf Hitlers of the world. So a second option is that we can place covert action under extensive and true democratic oversight. For example, a bipartisan Congressional Committee of 40 members could review and veto all aspects of CIA operations upon a majority or super-majority vote. Which of these two options is best may be the subject of debate, but one thing is clear: like dictatorship, like monarchy, unaccountable covert operations should die like the dinosaurs they are.
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Chapter 1 of "A Tinker's Damn", and an announcement from HeWhoLooksSkyward

Link to the Wiki page, with additional links to Clan information and background Lore.
Chapter 1: Let The Punishment Fit The Crime
The blade felt good in his hand. Just a scrap of metal, rubbed against a rock to sharpen it. He kept it clutched against his chest at night to keep the monsters away. But the monsters never really went away.
He couldn’t remember his last meal. Something from the food, bad-tasting. But he’d been hungry then too, swallowing it down before it could come back up. It had made him sick, curled up and hurting, holding his tummy tight to keep it down. That had been a bad time. And now he was hungry again...the hungry that leaves you wobbly. The monsters had chased him away from all the good dumps, shouting and buzzing at him as he ran for his life.
Diggs already knew not to try the crawling things in the dirt. Those were very bad for you. The big people had told him that, long ago. He didn’t remember them real good, but he was sure they’d been important to him.
Pretty sure.
He had to eat. Had to, or he was gonna lay down and not get up. He thought and thought and thought. Diggs took his blade and crawled into a perch; a place he knew that had the best view. He had his blade, and he could wave it at them, make it give him food. People food, not monster stuff. So he waited. And waited. And fell asleep.
He woke up groggy, everything feeling fuzzy. Diggs rubbed at his eyes, looking around...and then he saw it. The monster. He hated the monsters, hated them...and felt his fingers curl around his blade. He kept hating them as he climbed down, staggering through the alley to jump out at the monster and jab the air with his blade, making his scary face with the teeth and the growling. The monster stopped, swirling about as it gazed down at him.
Something flashed in the air and he stumbled back, but it was so much faster, jabbing into him, hurting him! He staggered, the blade falling to the dirt...and then he fell to the dirt, as the monster swirled away, his chest squeezing him so hard he couldn’t breathe...before everything turned black.
Maggie puttered through the back alleys, with one eye out for the shiny bits and the other on the throttle. She’d known that damn potentiometer was wonky, but she’d been so sure she could coax a few more kilometers out of it. Ha! She’d already jury-rigged it as best she could, but what she needed to do was find a spare. She could build one if she had to, but it would be a clunky makeshift job, even more unreliable than what she was dealing with now. With the right parts she could make damn near anything...but when did that ever happen?
Never, that’s when. Maggie hacked up a goober and spit, wiping her face with her sleeve. Good parts credits, in trade...and if she any of that she wouldn’t be out here digging through the trash, now would she? She’d make do like she always had and spend half her time rebuilding.
This new district didn’t look like a great place for setting up shop, but beggars can’t be choosers. She’d snuck away from her last nest one step ahead of the government thugs, not known for their love of Humanity. It was all bullshit; a missing item, an injured pet, and the fingers started pointing. Terrans had been the galaxy’s favorite scapegoat for nigh on two centuries now, so why should she be any different? Rule number one in this day and age was “Don’t Rock the Boat”, though she must have broken it somehow. Stay low, stay out of sight, and keep moving.
Tomorrow? Don’t let yourself think about tomorrow. It just makes you crazy. Better to believe there ain’t no such thing. That way, when it shows up...if it shows’ll be a surprise. A bad one, most likely.
The throttle jerked for a moment, just long enough to give her a start, before settling back down. Maggie glared at the pedal, daring it to try that again, and then turned her attention back to the warren she was working her way through. It looked like an old industrial zone that’d fallen on hard times, which was as about as close to perfect as she could hope for. There’d be nothing of real value here, but a Tinker had different priorities.
If the Tinkers had a motto, it’d be “One man’s junk is another man’s treasure”. It was amazing the stuff that got thrown out. The electric scooter she was puttering around on was built from parts she’d scavenged here and there, and if it didn’t look like much, who cares? It worked. That was more important than some half-baked notion of aesthetics. Most of the stuff she found was leftovers of some fad, already passé before it hit the ground. Good, serviceable gear, just needing a little TLC to bring it back to life.
Maggie pulled her scooter over to the side of the alley and switched it off. No sense wasting precious juice, and maybe it’d give that potentiometer a chance to settle down. She snorted at that. Murphy’s Law as alive and well in this corner of the galaxy, and it had a fucking hardon for people like her.
Pausing for a moment, she took in her surroundings. There was a battered collection bin that looked promising, and feeling every one of her years she used the scooter for a boost, climbing up the side and peering down into the darkness. Nothing caught her eye as she scanned the interior. It only took a few seconds surveying the contents to convinced her it was a bust, as she used her new roost to look for something better. Maggie took her time, not wanting to miss anything, but as she made a slow pivot, she could feel the acid in her belly start to boil. This district wasn’t panning out.
She’d only arrived on Azhakom a few months earlier, taking transport on an old freighter. They were glad to see her, their last engineer had moved on, leaving them in dire straits. Working her passage, fixing what needed fixin’, just like always, and by the time they’d arrived the crew begged her to stay on. She’d refused, as she never liked to stay in one place for long. There were...reasons.
Shaking her head in disgust, Maggie started climbing back down when...
...wait...what was that?
It looked like just another pile of trash, but that was before it moved. She felt the blood in her veins freeze. couldn’t be…
Maggie jumped down and fired up the scooter, whipping it around so fast it threatened to spill over, racing to where she’d spotted the strange object, and to Hell with the throttle. If she was right
In less than a minute she was screeching to a halt and hopping off the scooter, scurrying over to where the child lay. A boy, rail-thin, unconscious and gasping for air while his limbs jerked and twitched, with flecks of white foam dotting his pale lips.
“No no no!” Maggie tugged at the boy’s clothes, tearing open his thin shirt, her eyes narrowing at the bloody puncture mark at the base of his throat. “Dear God boy, what did you do?” she snapped, her mind reeling at what to do next. The puncture mark, the foam on his lips, the spasms...all clear signs of Xaak Symbiote poisoning.
If the boy did not get help soon...very soon...he’d die.
The Azha-Xaak authorities had the antidote but going to them would lead to questions....questions that were better left unanswered. Xaak symbiotes only attacked when they saw a clear threat to their Azha hosts, and by their laws, that they had poisoned him was clear proof of his guilt.
The punishment, of course, was death.
Her own medical supplies were meager, her training haphazard, but it was enough to tell her she was in over her head. “Damnit,” she cursed, “damnit damnit damnit.” Why the fuck did this have to happen to her? She spun around again, praying there was somebody, anybody, nearby she could dump this off on.
But there was no one, just as she’d known. She could walk away, and try to live with the fact she let him die, or...she could do something about it.
FUCK!” she shouted at the sky, her voice echoing through the deserted streets. “I do not fucking need this!” She glared at the kid, willing he’d get up on his own...but it wasn’t in the cards and she’d known that from the start. “Make your choice, old woman,” she grumbled, before sighing in defeat.
She wasn’t a fan of kids...hell, she wasn’t a fan of people...but turning her back on a dying child? That was one line she couldn’t bring herself to cross.
The decision now made, Maggie cursed as she grabbed the kid’s arm and threw it around her neck, hoisting him up. The skinny little runt was even lighter than she’d first thought, but by the time she drug his body to the scooter and dumped him amongst the junk she was gasping with the effort. “Maggie old girl, you ain’t as young as you was,” she wheezed, tucking in his legs, before pulling out her minicomp and opening a rarely used app. Squinting at the cracked screen, she input the search parameters, scowling as the answer popped up almost immediately. An hour’s drive, she figured, which surprised her. Humans were sparse on this world, and she hadn’t known there were any others nearby.
Sparing her passenger a quick look, she cursed yet again. Kid might not have an hour.
“Then stop wastin’ time,” she snorted, climbing on the seat and giving the power gauge a tap. It was gonna be close. Strapping in, she tromped on the throttle, heading for the other side of the alien megalopolis.
There wasn’t a direct route...or there was, just not one she dared take. Too much traffic, too fast traffic, and too much heat on the roads. The local bulls would snatch her up in a heartbeat which was bad enough, but once they found the kid Side streets it is.
Maggie stopped when she could, checking on her passenger, but each time she looked his breathing got shallower and his color worse. Any margin she might have had was getting cut razor-thin, so she firewalled the throttle and crossed her fingers. If that damn potentiometer could just hold on a little longer…
Ten minutes later, it coughed and ground to a halt.
Her string of curses could have stripped paint off a hull as she kicked the scooter, biting her tongue she limped over to check on the brat, peeling back an eyelid. His glassy stare and dilated pupils told a grim tale as she bowed to the inevitable, grabbing her toolkit and popping open the engine compartment. Getting the scooter running again was a simple enough matter...just a few minutes of butchery as she cross-connected the potentiometers.
It’d work all right...and burn itself out in the process. All those months scavenging and rebuilding, wasted. Maggie snarled, “You better be worth it,” over her shoulder as she strapped back in, bracing herself as she hit the throttle. Jury-rigged like it was there were only two settings now...full stop, and full throttle. It made for a bumpy ride...on a couple turns she almost pitched him out, before getting the beast back under control.
Her guesstimate of a deadline was nearly up when she lurched to a halt in front of a nondescript building...just as the scooter coughed out an acrid cloud smelling of burnt electronics before it wheezed and died. Maggie had known its fate when she’d made the jury-rigged repairs, but she still wanted to scream in frustration. It would take her weeks to fix it!
Maggie growled, smoldering as she turned to look at her destination. It was an old warehouse, slightly refurbished, with a red diamond blazing above the entrance. A handful of Azha lurked beneath the portico, but she ignored them. It was the proprietors she was interested in, and besides, none of the aliens were cloaked within a Xaak symbiote. Losing a symbiote was bad news for them, the government all but ignoring their plight, believing that a true Azha would have died along with its symbiote. It was an ancient custom, and not universal...but enough followed it that aid was basically nonexistent.
So they’d come to the Knights, just like she had. They didn’t turn away those in need, no matter the species, as long as they could render aid. They were skilled Healers, but that was only part of their charter...for the Knights Hospitaller were also Warriors. Anyone under their protection was safe from harm...and they would die to the last defending them, if it came to that.
It was a Code Maggie could respect...even if she couldn’t follow it herself.
“Hello in there!” Maggie shouted. “I got a kid who needs looking after!”
A figure appeared at the door; a kit slung over her shoulder. Her shoulder bore the rank of Chevalier Troisième, her dark skin and hair hiding her emotions as she knelt next to the scooter, checking out the kid. Maggie grimaced as she realized the young woman was several months pregnant. Of course she’d have one in the oven, as disgustingly young and healthy as she looked to be. Looking away she glared at the Azha lounging nearby, daring them to start something.
None accepted the challenge, buzzing and gabbling to themselves as they gave her a wide berth which suited her just fine. Not having her translator switched on, she didn’t understand what they were saying...nothing nice about her, she was certain.
“Symbiote poisoning,” the medic confirmed, as she tapped the communicator on her wrist. “Bring a stretcher out front,” she ordered, “and prep the ventilator stet.”
“On our way,” a voice replied, as the medic looked up at her.
“Family?” she asked. “One of your Clan mates?”
“Just stumbled across him,” Maggie replied, shaking her head. “I got no idea who he is.”
The young woman nodded, taking that in, as a pair of Sixièmes came running out carrying a stretcher. Orderlies then, she thought to herself, just starting their careers. They lifted the kid from the scooter and carried him in.
“Well, come inside,” she smiled, giving Maggie the professional once over. “I suspect you could do with a good meal, and I have a feeling it’s been a while since you last had a workup.”
Maggie shook her head, waving her off. “I just came here to drop off the kid,” she balked, stepping back. “Thanks anyway, but I got places to go…” her words grinding to a halt as she looked once again at the deceased scooter. “Well...fuck,” she swore, before shrugging in defeat. “I guess I’ll take you up on that least till I can fix my ride,” she said at last, jabbing a finger in the Knight’s direction. “But no poking and prodding!”
“Of course not,” she smiled, as Maggie eyed her like an ear-worn deck. When the KH looked at you like that you just knew the needles were coming out. “I’m Blye Tagata,” she said as an introduction, looking at her expectantly, as if she was waiting for something.
She turned her head and spit, clearing the dust from her mouth. “...Maggie,” she answered. Wait all you want, she thought to herself, I ain’t doing the blessing.
The moment passed as the young Chevalier shrugged it off, extending an arm to guide her inside.
...okay...trying this again...
Hey all, this is your friendly neighborhood Wordsmith, HeWhoLooksSkyward, with a big announcement. For two years now I’ve regaled you with stories, tales of exploration and war, of questioning what it means to be human, of suffering and loss...all the elements of life itself. And now, it’s time for me to take the next step.
I’m moving my base of operations over to Patreon, at , so I can focus on my next project...and it’s a biggie.
Ladies and Gentlemen, boys and girls of all ages, allow me to introduce you to Descendants of a Dead Earth., it’s not grimdark. Seriously, what is wrong with you people? :)
What it is is the story of mankind, after the loss of our homeworld. Centuries from now, when Man first stepped beyond the Solar System, we found a galaxy teeming with life. That was the good news.
The bad news was that all the good real estate was already taken, and the elder and more powerful species had little time for another batch of upstarts. But as long as we minded our manners and didn’t joggle their elbows, they mostly left us to our own devices.
And then war came.
Not just any war, the war, the war the other species had long dreaded, against an ancient and powerful race. The only way anyone was going to survive was if they all banded together...even those that had long despised each other. This war was for all the marbles...and Humanity gladly joined the Alliance, eager for a chance to prove themselves.
It was a brutal and ugly conflict, and the casualties were horrific. The enemy swept through the quadrant like a plague...and standing right in its path was Earth.
We never stood a chance.
In the blink of an eye, the Task Force we sent to fight was now all that was left of humanity. Our worlds were scoured clean, left uninhabitable, teeming with the enemies’ weapons. Going back was not an option.
So we chose to move forward, surviving as we always have. We searched for a new place to call home...only to be told time and again there was no room at the Inn. As the years went by the Task Force fractured, the struggle for resources and internal disagreements splitting them apart, giving birth to the Clans. Constantly on the move, humanity became the Roma of the galaxy, always being told by the other races they weren’t welcome.
The Clans gathered into Factions...Factions that didn’t always see eye to eye...and now, some two hundred years after the war, we’re still hanging on. By our fingernails, maybe...but we haven’t given up.
Or as some wag scrawled on a cargo crate years ago, a message that has been copied time and again, everywhere Man can be found; ”We may be down...but we ain’t out.” We still search for a new world to call home, a piece of dirt of our own.
And now, after all this time...Maggie, of the Tinker Clan, makes a discovery, setting in motion a chain of events that could change our fate forever.
Welcome, my friends, to Book 1 in the series, A Tinker’s Damn. :)
Each book will feature a different MC, from a different Clan, the story building across the novels to its culmination…
...a new home.
I hope you’ll come join me on this journey, and see where it leads.
submitted by Hewholooksskyward to HFY [link] [comments]

List of famous people throughout history talking about Jews

Thought this was an interesting list of quotes. Anyone care to speculate as to why all these famous people spoke so negatively about Jews?
“Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.” (John 8:44)
"I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan." (Rev. 2:9)
"Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee." (Rev. 3:9)
"Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews." (Acts 26:7)
"The Jews, who both killed the Lord Jesus, and the prophets, and have persecuted us, and please not God, and are adversaries to all men; prohibiting us to speak to the nations, that they may be saved, to fill up their sins always: for the wrath of God has come upon them to the end.” (Thessalonians 2:14-16)
"The Jews belong to a dark and replusive force. One knows how numerous this clique is, how they stick together and what power they exercise through their unions. They are a nation of rascals and deceivers."
"Softly! Softly! I want none but the judges to hear me. The Jews have already gotten me into a fine mess, as they have many other gentleman. I have no desire to furnish further grist for their mills." (Oration in Defense of Flaccus)
— DIODORUS SICULUS - 1st century Greek historian
Observed that Jews treated other people as enemies and inferiors. "Usury is the practice of lending money at excessive interest rates. This has for centuries caused great misery and poverty for Gentiles. It has brought strong condemnation of the Jews!"
— LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA - 1st century Roman philosopher
"The customs of that most criminal nation [The Jews] have gained such strength that they have now been received in all lands. The conquered have given laws to the conquerors." (De Superstitione).
— ST. JUSTIN lived from 100 AD to 165 AD (Died in Rome)
"The Jews were behind all the persecutions of the Christians. They wandered through the country everywhere hating and undermining the Christian faith."
"Christ is King of Israel, and Christians are the Israelite race."
— TACITUS - Roman Historian died 117 AD
"The customs of the Jews are base and abominable and owe their persistence to their depravity. Jews are extremely loyal to one another, always ready to show compassion, but towards every other people they feel only hate and enimity. As a race (the Jews are not a race, because they have mingled with the other races to the point that they are only a people, not a race), they are prone to lust; among themselves nothing is unlawful."
— CASSIUS DIO died 235 AD Turkey
"The Jews were destroying both Greeks and Romans. They ate the flesh of their victims, made belts for themselves out of their entrails and daubed themselves with their blood... in all 222,000 men perished in Cyrene and 240,000 in Cyprus, and for this reason no Jew may set foot in Cyprus today."
— POPE SAINT SYLVESTER I from 314 to his death in 335
“Concerning the prohibition of usury and base gain by the clergy; and concerning the prohibition against conversing or eating with the Jews. No priest shall set money out at interest or take unfair profit or be friendly or sociable with Jews; nor should anyone take food or drink with the Jews; for if this was decreed by the holy apostles, it is incumbent upon the faithful to obey their command; and the synod shall excommunicate any one who does not comply with this order.” (at the First Ecumenical Council of Nicea)
— ST. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO, lived 354 AD to 430 AD
"Our Lord Jesus Christ referred to himself as the Stone (St. Mt. 21:44). Lying the ground, it shakes whoever falls over it; coming from on high, it crushes the proud. The Jews have already been shaken by their previous stumble. What awaits them is to be crushed by His Coming."
"Judaism since Christ is a corruption; indeed, Judas (Iscariot) is the image of the Jewish people: their understanding of scripture is carnal; they bear the guilt for the death of the Saviour, for through their father they have killed Jesus Christ. The Jews held Him; the Jews bound Him; they crowned Him with thorns; they scourged Him; they hanged Him upon a tree.
“The Lord Christ distinguished between his faithful ones and His Jewish enemies, as between light and darkness.” (Tractates on the Gospel of John, Tractate 35, v. 4)
“The Jews wander over the entire earth, their backs bent over and their eyes cast downward, forever calling to our minds the curse they carry with them." (Against the Jews)
— ST. AMBROSE, a Bishop of Milan, quoted from 374 A.D.
"Jews are the most worthless of all men. They are lecherous, greedy, rapacious. They are perfidious murderers of Christ. They worship the Devil. Their religion is sickness. The Jews are the odious assassins of Christ and for killing God there is no expedition possible, no indulgence of pardon. Christians can never cease vengeance, and the Jews must live in servitude forever. God always hated the Jews. It is essential that all Christians hate them."
— ST. BASIL OF CAESAREA, a Bishop in Asia Minor, Lived 330 to 379
“If someone should kill the son of a man, and then stretch forth his hands still stained with blood to the afflicted father, asking for fellowship, would not the blood of his son, visible on the hand of his murderer, provoke him to just anger instead? And such are the prayers of the Jews, for when they stretch forth their hands in prayer, they only remind God the Father of their sin against His Son. And at every stretching-forth of their hands, they only make it obvious that they are stained with the blood of Christ. For they who persevere in their blindness inherit the blood-guilt of their fathers; for they cried out: ‘His blood be on us and on our children’” (Matthew 27:25).” (On Prayer, Sermon IX)
— ST. GREGORY OF NYSSA, died 394 AD Nyssa Turkey
“Jews are slayers of the Lord, murderers of the prophets, enemies and haters of God, adversaries of grace, enemies of their fathers’ faith, advocates of the devil, a brood of vipers, slanderers, scoffers, men of darkened minds, the leaven of Pharisees, a congregation of demons, sinners, wicked men, haters of goodness!”
— ST. JEROME (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus), Lived 347 to 420
"If you call it [the synagogue] a brothel, a den of vice, the devil’s refuge, Satan’s fortress, a place to deprave the soul, an abyss of every conceivable disaster or whatever else you will, you are still saying less than it deserves.”
"How dare Christians have the slightest intercourse with Jews! They are lustful, rapacious, greedy, perfidious bandits: pests of the universe! Indeed, an entire day would not suffice to tell of all their rapine, their avarice their deception of the poor, their thievery, and their huckstering."
"The synagogue is worse than a whorehouse. It is the den of scoundrels and the repair of wild beasts... the temple of demons devoted to idolatrous cults... the refuge of debauches, and the cavern of devils. It is a criminal assembly of Jews... a place a meeting point for the assassins of Christ... a den of thieves, a dwelling of iniquity, the refuge of devils, a golf and abyss of perdition. I would say the same thing of their souls."
"You did slay Christ, you did lift violent hands against the master, you did spill his precious blood. This is why you have no chance for atonement, excuse or defense.
— POPE STEPHEN III from 768-772
"With great sorrow and mortal anxiety. We have heard the Jews in a Christian Land have the same rights as Christians, that Christian men and woman live under the same roof with their traitors and defile their souls day and night with blasphemies."
— POPE SAINT GREGORY VII from 1073 to 1085
“We exhort your Royal Majesty [King Alfonse VI of Castile], not to further tolerate, that the Jews rule Christians and have power over them. For to allow that Christians are subordinated to Jews and are delivered to their whims, means to oppress the Church of God, means to revile Christ himself.” (Regesta IX. 2)
— POPE ALEXANDER III from 1159 to 1181
“Our ways of life and those of the Jews are utterly different, and Jews will easily pervert the souls of simple folk to their superstition and unbelief if such folk are living in continual and intimate intercourse with them.” (Ad Haec)
“We declare that the evidence of Christians is to be accepted against Jews in every case, since Jews employ their own witnesses against Christians – and that those who prefer Jews to Christians in this matter are to lie under anathema, since Jews ought to be slaves to Christians.” (Canon 26) (at the Third Lateran Ecumenical Council)
— POPE INNOCENT III from 1198 to 1216
"The Jews' guilt of the crucifixion of Jesus consigned them to perpetual servitude, and, like Cain, they are to be wanderers and fugitives. The Jews will not dare to raise their necks, bowed under the yoke of perpetual slavery, against the reverence of the Christian faith."
“When Jews are admitted out of pity into familiar intercourse with Christians, they repay their hosts, according to the popular proverb, after the fashion of the rat hidden in the sack, or the snake in the bosom, or of the burning brand in one’s lap.”
“We therefore renew in this canon, on account of the boldness of the offenders, what the Council of Toledo providently decreed in this matter: we forbid Jews to be appointed to public offices, since under cover of them they are very hostile to Christians.” (at the Fourth Ecumenical Lateran Council).
“The more the Christian religion is restrained from usurious practices, so much the more does the perfidy of the Jews grow in these matters, so that within a short time they are exhausting the resources of the Christians. Wishing therefore to see that Christians are not savagely oppressed by Jews in this matter, we ordain by this synodal decree that if Jews in the future, on any pretext, extort oppressive and excessive interest from Christians, then they are to be removed from contact with Christians until they have made adequate satisfaction for the immoderate burden. Christians too, if need be, shall be compelled by ecclesiastical censure, without the possibility of an appeal, to abstain from commerce with them. We enjoin upon princes, not to be hostile to Christians on this account, but rather to be zealous in restraining Jews from so great oppression.” (at the Fourth Ecumenical Lateran Council).
“The Lord made Cain a wanderer and a fugitive over the earth, but set a mark upon him, making his head to shake, lest anyone finding him should slay him. Thus the Jews, against whom the blood of Christ calls out, although they ought not to be wiped out, nevertheless, as wanderers they must remain upon the earth until their faces are filled with shame and they seek the name of the Lord Jesus Christ.” (Epistle to the Count of Nevers)
“It is fitting for Jews to serve Christians, but not for Christians to serve Jews. On the contrary, the Jews, as servants rejected by that Savior Whose death they wickedly contrived, should recognize themselves in fact and in creed the servants of those whom the death of Christ has set free, even as it has rendered them bondmen.”
— ST THOMAS AQUINAS - Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church - Lived 1225 to 1274
"It would be licit, according to custom, to hold Jews in perpetual servitude because of their crime.” (De Regimine Iudæorum)
— POPE GREGORY IX from 1227 to 1241
“Ungrateful for favours and forgetful of benefits, the Jews return insult for kindness and impious contempt for goodness.” (Epistle to the Hierarchy of Germany)
“We order all our brother bishops absolutely to suppress the blasphemy of Jews in your dioceses, churches, and communities, so that they do not dare raise their necks, bent under eternal slavery, to revile the Redeemer.”
“They ought to know the yoke of perpetual enslavement because of their guilt. See to it that the perfidious Jews never in the future become insolent, but that they always suffer publicly the shame of their sin in servile fear.” (Epistle to the Hierarchy of Germany)
— POPE INNOCENT IV from 1243 to his death in 1254
“And that you [King Saint Louis IX] order both the aforesaid abusive books [The Talmud] condemned by the same doctors and generally all the books with their glosses which were examined and condemned by them to be burned by fire wherever they can be found throughout your entire kingdom, strictly forbidding that Jews henceforth have Christian nurses or servants, that the sons of a free woman may not serve the sons of a bondwoman, but as slaves condemned by the Lord, whose death they wickedly plotted, they at least outwardly recognize themselves as slaves of those whom the death of Christ made free and themselves slaves. So we may commend the zeal of your sincerity in the Lord with due praises.” (The Wicked Perfidy of the Jews)
“The wicked perfidy of the Jews – from whose hearts Our Saviour did not remove the veil because of their enormous crimes but caused them justly to continue in their blindness, commit acts of shame which engender astonishment in those who hear, and terror in those who discover it.” (The Wicked Perfidy of the Jews)
“We who long with all our hearts for the salvation of souls, grant you full authority by these present letters to banish the Jews, either in your own person or through the agency of others, especially since, as we have been informed, they do not abide by the regulations drawn up for them by this Holy See.” (To the King of France)
“The Jews should not be allowed to keep what they have obtained from others by usury; it were best that they were compelled to worked so that they could earn their living instead of doing nothing but becoming avaricious.”
— POPE MARTIN V from 1417 to 1431
“However, we received a short time ago through credible reports knowledge to our great alarm, that various Jews of both sexes in Cafas and other cities, lands and places overseas, which fall under the jurisdiction of Christians, are of obstinate mind and, in order to conceal swindling and wickedness, wear no special sign on their clothing, so that they are not recognisable as Jews. They are not ashamed to give themselves out as Christians before many Christians of both sexes of these cities, districts and places mentioned, who could not in fact identify them, and consequently commit shameful things and crimes.” (Sedes Apostolica)
— POPE EUGENE IV from 1431-1447
"We decree and order that from now on, and for all time... All and every single Jew, of whatever sex and age, must everywhere, wear the distinctive dress and known marks by which they can evidently distinguished from Christians."
"We decree and order that from now on, and for all time, Christians shall not eat or drink with the Jews, nor admit them to feasts, nor cohabit with them, nor bathe with them. […] They cannot live among Christians, but in a certain street, separated and segregated from Christians, and outside which they cannot under any pretext have houses.”
— ST. BERNADINE OF FELTRE, died 1494 in Italy
"Canon law forbids all intercourse with Jews".
— JOHN CALVIN French theologian, pastor and reformer lived 1509 to 1564
"Their [The Jews] rotten and unbending stiffneckedness deserve that they be oppressed unendingly and without measure or end and they die in their misery without the pity of anyone."
— MARTIN LUTHER major figure in the Protestant Reformation lived 1483 to 1546
"Therefore be on your guard against the Jews, knowing that wherever they have their synagogues, nothing is found but a den of devils in which sheer self*glory, conceit, lies, blasphemy, and defaming of God and men are practiced most maliciously and veheming his eyes on them."
"Moreover, they are nothing but thieves and robbers who daily eat no morsel and wear no thread of clothing which they have not stolen and pilfered from us by means of their accursed usury. Thus they live from day to day, together with wife and child, by theft and robbery, as arch*thieves and robbers, in the most impenitent security."
“I have read and heard many stories about the Jews which agree with this judgment of Christ, namely, how they have poisoned wells, made assassinations, kidnaped children, as related before … However, it all coincides with the judgment of Christ which declares that they are venomous, bitter, vindictive, tricky serpents, assassins, and children of the devil who sting and work harm stealthily wherever they cannot do it openly … That is what I had in mind when I said earlier that, next to the devil, a Christian has no more bitter and galling foe than a Jew. There is no other to whom we accord as many benefactions and from whom we suffer as much as we do from these base children of the devil, this brood of vipers. These poisonous envenomed worms should be drafted into forced labor. The young and strong Jews and Jewesses should be given the flail, the ax, the hoe, the spade, the distaff, and the spindle and let them earn their bread by the sweat of their noses.” As a last resort, they should simply be kicked out for all time.”
— POPE SAINT PIUS V from 1566 to 1572
“With full understanding and in exercising of the apostolic powers, we withdraw from the Jews and their rule (and recognize no right or claim) all properties, which the Jews have in their possession in this city Rome or other places of our domain of rule.” (Cum Nos Super)
"In order to make and end to all doubt concerning the colour of the cap and the sign of the (Jewish) woman, we declare that the colour must be yellow."
“Besides usury, through which Jews everywhere have sucked dry the property of impoverished Christians, they are accomplices of thieves and robbers.” (Hebraeorum Gens)
“The Jewish people fell from the heights because of their faithlessness and condemned their Redeemer to a shameful death. Their godlessness has assumed such forms that, for the salvation of our own people, it becomes necessary to prevent their disease. Besides usury, through which Jews everywhere have sucked dry the property of impoverished Christians, they are accomplices of thieves and robbers; and the most damaging aspect of the matter is that they allure the unsuspecting through magical incantations, superstition, and witchcraft to the Synagogue of Satan and boast of being able to predict the future. We have carefully investigated how this revolting sect abuses the name of Christ and how harmful they are to those whose life is threatened by their deceit. On account of these and other serious matters, and because of the gravity of their crimes which increase day to day more and more, We order that, within 90 days, all Jews in our entire earthly realm of justice – in all towns, districts, and places – must depart these regions. After this time limit shall all at the present or in the future, who dwell or wander into that city or other already mentioned, be affected, their property confiscated and handed over to the Siscus, and they shall becomes slaves of the Roman Church, live in perpetual servitude and the Roman Church shall have the same rights over them as the remaining [worldly] lords over slaves and property.” (Hebraeorum Gens)
— POPE CLEMENT VIII from 1592 to 1605
"All the world suffers from the usury of the Jews, their monopolies and deceit. They have brought many unfortunate people into a state of poverty, especially the farmers, working class people and the very poor. Then as now Jews have to be reminded intermittently anew that they were enjoying rights in any country since they left Palestine and the Arabian desert, and subsequently their ethical and moral doctrines as well as their deeds rightly deserve to be exposed to criticism in whatever country they happen to live."
“The impious Talmudic, Cabalistic and other wicked books of the Jews are hereby entirely condemned and they must always remain condemned and prohibited and this law must be perpetually observed.”
"The Bible itself says the Jews are an accursed people."
— POPE BENEDICT XIV from 1740 to his death in 1758.
“It is fitting for Jews to serve Christians, but not for Christians to serve Jews. On the contrary, the Jews, as slaves rejected by that Saviour Whose death they wickedly contrived, should recognize themselves in fact and in creed the slaves of those whom the death of Christ has set free, even as it has rendered them bondmen.” (Quoting Pope Innocent III, “Etsi Judaeos”)
“Furthermore, by means of their particular practice of commerce, they amass a great store of money and then by an exorbitant rate of interest utterly destroy the wealth and inheritance of Christians.” (A Quo Primum)
— POPE ST. PIUS X to Theodore Herzl's face (1904).
"The Jews have not recognized our Lord, therefore we cannot recognize the Jewish people."
— VOLTAIRE (François-Marie Arouet), French writer - lived 1694 to 1778
"Why are the Jews hated? It is inevitable result of their laws; they either have to conquer everybody or be hated by the whole human race... The Jewish nation dares to display an irreconcilable hared towards all nations, and revolts against all masters; always superstitious, always greedy for the well-being enjoyed by others, always barbarous - cringing in misfortune and insolent in philosophy."
"If you go into a bar and get your ass whipped, maybe the people in the bar were wrong;but if you go into 10 bars in one night and get beat down in every single one of them, chances are that it isn't them, it's you. If the jews had only been expelled from one country, they could possibly get away with convincing the world that they had been terribly wronged. Unfortunately for them, the fact is that jews have been thrown out of nearly every civilised nation on the planet (and a few un-civilised ones)"
"There was a time in this world when our own people could speak the truth about the jews—or anything else for that matter— without fear of retaliation. Those days are gone but their words, and the truth behind them, remain. The teachers, preachers, scientists, inventors, artists, newspaper editors, government officials and business leaders of today know full well that if they were to utter these same "politically incorrect" facts today, they would be branded "racist", "hater", or "anti-semite", hounded from their profession and marginalized from society. Many of us realize that it is not only our job to keep the truth alive until a more sane and rational age emerges, but to do what we can to help manifest that new age. "
— BENJAMIN FRANKLIN - Founding Father of U.S. - 1789
"Their ideas [The Jews] are not those of Americans. The leopard cannot changes his spots. The Jews are a danger to this land, and if they are allowed to enter, they will imperil its institutions. They should be excluded by this Constitution."
"I warn you, gentleman, if you do not exclude Jews for all time, your children will curse you in your graves... In less than 200 years they will have swarmed here in such great number that they will dominate and devour the land..."
"There is a great danger for the United State of America. This great danger is the Jew. Gentlemen, in every land the Jews have settled, they have depressed the moral level and lowered the degree of commercial honesty. They have remained apart and unassimilated; oppressed, they attempt to strangle the nation financially, as in the case of Portugal and Spain."
"For more than seventeen hundred years they have lamented their sorrowful fate — namely, that they have been driven out of their mother land; but, gentlemen, if the civilized world today should give them back Palestine and their property, they would immediately find pressing reason for not returning there. Why? Because they are vampires and vampires cannot live on other vampires --they cannot live among themselves. They must live among Christians and others who do not belong to their race."
— THOMAS JEFFERSON - Founding Father and '3rd' President of America from 1801 to 1809
"Dispersed as the Jews are, they still form one nation, foreign to the land they live in."
— QUEEN MARIA THERESA - Ruler of Habsburg - Lived 1717 to 1780
"Henceforth no Jew, no matter under what name, will be allowed to remain here without my written permission. I know of no other troublesome plague within the state than this race, which impoverished the people by their fraud, usury and money lending and commits all deeds which an honorable man despises. Subsequently they have to be removed and excluded from here as much as possible."
— ST. ALPHONSUS LIGUORI, Italian Catholic Bishop, 1696 - 1787
“Poor Jews! You invoked a dreadful curse upon your own heads; and that curse, miserable race, you carry upon you to this day, and to the End of Time you shall endure the chastisement of that innocent blood!”
— JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, German writer, 1749-1832
“This crafty race has one great principle; as long as order prevails, there is nothing to be gained.”
"What shall I say, however, about the people which has appropriated before all others the eternal blessing of wandering and has understood how to outwit by its mobile activity those who are settled and to surpass their co-wanderers?...
Nobody ever portrayed the caricature of a rabbi better than he. The fanatic zeal, the repulsive enthusiasm, the wild gesticulations, the confused murmuring, the piercing outcries, the effeminate movements, the sudden ups and downs of exaltation and the queerness of an ancient nonsense - all these he grasped so acutely that the presentation of this distasteful scene could make happy every man of taste as long as it lasted." (Wilhelm Melsters Wanderjahre)
"I refrain from all co-operation with Jews and their accomplices." (Tag und Jahreshefte)
— NAPOLEON BONAPARTE - Emperor of France - lived 1769 to 1821
"The Jews are the master robbers of the modern age."
"It is necessary to reduce, if not destroy, the tendency of Jewish people to practice a very great number of activities that are harmful to civilization and to public order in society in all countries of the world."
"They are carrion birds of humanity...[speaking of the Jews] are a state within a state. They are certainly not real citizens... The evils of Jews do not stem from individuals but from fundamental nature of these people."
"By what iracle, did whole provinces of France become heavily mortgaged to the Jews, when there are only sixty thousand of them in the country."
"When a government is dependent upon (((banjers))) for money, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand gives is above the hand that takes. Money has no motherland; (((financiers))) are without patriotism and without deceny; their sole object is gain."
— COUNT HELMUTH VON MOLTKE - The chief of staff of the Prussian Army - lived 1800 to 1891
"The Jews form a state, and, obeying their own laws, they evade those of their host country. The Jews always consider an oath regarding a Christian not binding. During the Campaign of 1812 the Jews were spies, they were paid by both sides, they betrayed both sides.”
— FRANZ LISZT - Hungarian Composer - lived 1811 to 1886
"The day will come when all nations amidst which the Jews are dweliing will have to raise the question of their wholesale expulsion, a question which will be one of the life or death, good health or chronic disease, peaceful existence or perpetual social fever."
— RICHARD WAGNER 19th c. German composer.
"It is necessary for us to explain the involuntary repugnance we possess for the nature and personality of the Jews ... Judasiam is the evil conscious of modern civilization."
"The Jew has never had an art of his own, hence never a life of art-enabling import... So long as the separate art of music had a real organic life-need in it, down to the epochs of Mozart and Beethoven, there was nowhere to be found a Jew composer: it was utterly impossible for an element quite foreign to that living organism to take a part in the formative stages of that life. Only when a body's inner death is manifest, do outside elements win the power of judgment in it-yet merely to destroy it. On one thing am I clear: that is the influence which | the Jews have gained upon our mental life, as displayed in the deflection and falsification of our highest culture-tendencies. Whether the downfall oJ our culture can be arrested by a violent rejection of | the destructive alien element, I am unable to decide, since that would require fore es with whose existence I am unacquainted." ( From his book Judaism in Music)
— ERNEST RENAN, French historian - Lived 1823 to 1892
"The Jews are not merely a different religious community, but—and this is the most important factor—ethnically an altogether different race. The European felt instinctively that the Jew is a stranger, who immigrated from Asia. The so-called prejudice is natural sentiment. Civilization will overcome antipathy against the Israelite who merely professes another religion, but never against the racially different Jew . . . In Eastern Europe the Jew is the cancer slowly eating into the flesh of other nations. Exploitation of the people is his only aim. Selfishness and a lack of personal courage are his chief characteristics; self-sacrifice and patriotism are altogether foreign to him."
— FYODOR DOSTOYEVEKY - Russian novelist- Diary 1877
"The Yid and his bank are now reigning over everything; over Europe, education, civilization, socialiam - especially socialism, for he will use it to uproot Christianity and destroy its civilization. And when nothing but anarchy remains, the Yid will be in command of everything. For while he goes about preaching socialism, he will stick together with his own, and after all the riches of Europe will have been wasted, the Yid's bank will still be there. The Antichrist will come and stand over anarchy."
— OTTO VON BISMARCK - Prussian Statesmen - lived 1815 to 1898
“I fear the Jewish banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America. And use it to systematically corrupt modern civilization. The Jews will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos that the earth should become their inheritance.”
— NICOLA TESLA - Serbian American inventor - lived 1856 to 1943
"Miss! Never trust a jew"
— SAND, GEORGE (Amantine Dupin Dudevant). 19th century French novelist
"I saw in 'the wandering Jew' the personification of the Jewish people, exiled in the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, they are once again extremely rich, owing to their unfailing rude greediness and their indefatigable activity. With their hard-heartedness that they extend toward people of other faiths and races they are at the point of making themselves kings of the world. This people can thank its obstinacy that France will be Judized within fifty years. Already some wise Jews prophesy this frankly." (Letter to Victor Lorie, 1857)
— HARRINGTON, LORD - 19th century British statesman
Opposed admission of Jewish immigrants to England because: "They are the great moneylenders and loan contractors of the world... The consequence is that the nations of the world are groaning under heavy systems of taxation and national debt. They have ever been the greatest enemies of freedom." (Speech in the House of Lords, July 12, 1858)
— HENRY ADAMS - Author & Historian - Descendant of President John Adams - Lived 1838 to 1918
"The Jewish question is really the most serious of our problems."
"I detest [the Jews], and everything connected with them, and I live only and solely with the hope of seeing their demise, with all their accursed Judaism. I want to see all the lenders at interest taken out and executed."
"We are in the hands of the Jews. They can do what they please with our values."
Adams advised against investment except in the form of gold locked in a safe deposit box: "There you have no risk but the burglar. In any other form you have the burglar, the Jew, the Czar, the socialist, and, above all, the total irremediable, radical rottenness of our whole social, industrial, financial and political system."
— RUDOLF STEINER - Austrian Philospher - Died 1910
"Jewry as such has outlived itself for a long time. It does not have the right to exist in the modern life of nations. That it has survived, nevertheless, is a mistake by world history, of which the consequences were bound to come."
— WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST - Founder of largest newspaper chain Hearst Communications - 2x Member of U.S. House of Representatives
In his Newspaper: "WORLD FAMOUS MEN of the past accused the Jews of founding Communism. This charge is well founded. The Communist philosopy was drawn up by Karl Marx who descended from a long line of Rabbis. His ideology of anti-Christian and Socialist thought is outlined in the Jewish "TALMUD" which is the "bible" of the Jews. Of the four political groups which overthrew the Christan Czar of Russia two were 100% Jewish. They were the Mensheviks and The Jewish Bund. The other two were the Socialist Revolutionary Party and the Bolsheviks. Both were headed by Jews but had some Gentile members. Today we now know that Lenin was Jewish and all of the leaders of his first government were Jews. They were Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev and Sverdlow. The wealthiest Jewish banker in the world at that time, Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb investment bank of New York City, gave Trotsky and Lenin $20 million to overthrow the Czar and establish the Soviet tyranny". (according to the "NEW YORK JOURNAL-AMERICAN" of February 3, 1949.)
— MARK TWAIN - American Writer - Lived 1861 to 1925
"A Jewish beggar is not impossible, perhaps; such a thing may exist, but there are few men that can say they have seen that spectacle."
"Cotton states, after the war ... the Jew came down in force, set up shop on the plantation, supplied all the negroes' wants on credit, and at the end of the season was the proprietor of the negro's share of the present crop and part of the next one. Before long, the whites detested the Jew. The Jew is being legislated out of Russia. The reason is not concealed. The movement was instituted because the Christian peasant stood no chance against his commercial | abilities. The Jew was always ready to lend on a crop. When settlement day came, he owned the crop; the next year he owned the farm— like Joseph. "
"In the England of John's time everybody got into debt to the Jew. He gathered all lucrative enterprises into his hands. He was the King of Commerce. He had to be banished from the realm. For like reasons, Spain had to banish him 400 years ago, and
Austria a couple of centuries later. In all ages Christian Europe has been obliged to curtail his activities. If he entered upon a trade, the Christian had to retire from it. If he set up as a doctor, he took the business. If he exploited agriculture, the other farmers had to get at something else. The law had to step in to save the Christian from the poor-house. Still, almost bereft of employments, he found ways to make money. Even to get rich. This history has a most sordid and practical commercial look. Religious prejudices may account for one part of it, but not for the other nine. Protestants have persecuted Catholics-but they did not take their livelihoods away from them. Catholics have persecuted Protestants-but they never closed agriculture and the handicrafts against them. I feel convinced that the Crucifixion has not much to do with the world's attitude toward the Jew; that the reasons for it are much older than that event... I am convinced that the persecution of the Jew is not in any large degree due to religious prejudice. No, the Jew is a money-getter. He made it the end and aim of his life. He was at it in Rome. He has been at it ever since. His success has made the whole human race his enemy. You will say that the Jew is everywhere numerically feeble. When I read in the Cyclopedia Britannica that the Jewish population in the United States was 250,000 I wrote the editor and explained to him that I was personally acquainted with more Jews than that, and that his figures were without doubt a misprint for 25,000,000. People told me that they had reasons to suspect that for business reasons, many Jews did not report themselves as Jews. It looks plausible. I am strongly of the opinion that we have an immense Jewish population in America. I am assured by men competent to speak that the Jews are exceedingly active in politics..."
— HOUSTON STEWART CHAMBERLAIN, world famed author, lived from 1855 to 1927
"The revelation of Christ has no significance for the Jew! ...I have searched through a whole library of Jewish books in the expectation of finding - naturally not belief in the Divinity of Christ, nor the idea of redemption, but the purely human feeling for the greatness of suffering Savior - but in vain. A Jew who feels that, is, in fact, no longer a Jew, but a denier of Judiasm. And while we find, even in Mohammed's Koran, at least a vague conception of the importance of Christ and profound reverence for His personality, a cultured leading Jew of the nineteenth century (Graetz) calls Christ "the new birth with the death mask," which inflicted new and painful wounds upon the Jewish people; he cannot see anything else in Him. In view of the Cross he assures us that "the Jews do not require this convulsive emotion for their spiritual improvement," and adds, "particularly not among the middle classes of inhabitants of the cities." His comprehension goes further. In a book, republished in 1880, by a Spanish Jew (Mose de Leon) Jesus Christ is called a "dead dog" that lies "buried in a dunghill." Besides, the Jews have taken care to issue in the latter part of the nineteens century several editions (naturally in Hebrew) of the so-called "censured passages" from the Talmud, those passages usually omitted in which Christ is exposed to our scorn and hatred as a "fool," "sorcerer," "profane person," "idolater," "dog," "bastard," "child of lust," etc.: so, too, His sublime Mother." (Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, Vol. I, page 337)
— H.G. WELLS - English Writer - In 1921
"...the Idumeans (Edomites) were. ..made Jews. ..and a Turkish people (Khazars) were mainly Jews in South Russia.. .The main part of Jewry never was in Judea and had never come out of Judea." (The Outline of History, 3rd ed., MacMillian)
"Through their (Jew's) international news agencies, they mold your minds and have you see the world not as it is, but as they want you to see it. Through their cinema, they are the educators of our youth - and with just one film in two hours, can wipe out of a child's brain what he has learned in six months in the home, the church or the school."
— CLARE SHERIDAN - Lecturer in NEW YORK WORLD - 1923
“The Communists are Jews, and Russia is being entirely administered by them. They are in every government office, bureau and newspaper. They are driving out the Russians and are responsible for the anti-Semitic feeling which is increasing.”
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The rest of the materials went into the small safe that was in the room. I’m sure that was secure. However, I’m still not leaving my passports and cash here alone when I venture out in-country.
I spend some more time on my notebooks, both real and fake.
I receive a call from Mansur that he’ll come pick me up at the hotel at 0700 sharp so we can go out to the military airport. We’ll be flying in a Hind 20A out to the Aral Basin tomorrow with selected representatives of the Geofizika.
I affirm with Mansur. He asks if I require anything in the interim. No note of his behaviour or lack of decorum from the other night.
“Well, I’m getting low on cigars. But I know…” I was saying before Mansur cuts me off.
“I know of a man. He is new importer.” Mansur tells me, “He has now cigars. Finest kind. From Cuba.”
“For real?” I ask. “Get over here so I can give you some cash. I need cigars for my trip tomorrow.”
True to his word, Mansur shows up a while later and I fork over a wad of so’m so thick that it would give a filly emphysema. He departs to fill my order. A few hours later, I get a call from the lobby that a package has arrived for me. Would I like it sent up to my room?
“Yes, if you please.” I reply.
A porter arrives a few minutes later and hands over my package.
I tip and thank him, slam the door, and rock on over to my desk.
It’s two boxes of Monte Cristo #5’s, Maduro Churchills.
Holy shit, Mansur has come through in the clutch.
The boxes are not cello-wrapped which is typical once customs gets through with them.
They are also not sealed, just Scotch-taped shut. Another usual customs maneuver. So, I open the top box and see a very nicely laid out row of beautifully dark-brown cello-wrapped cigars. All smooth and slick as the day they were rolled on the thighs of young island virgins…
I retrieve my cigar cases and proceed to replenish them for my trip tomorrow. Oh, fuckbuckets, I can’t wait that long. After I fill my travel cases, I’m already on the second row into the first box. I grab a cigar at random and notice something odd.
The cellophane wrapper is wrinkled. Most the others are smooth, slick, and neatly packed.
It’s as if this cigar, and that one, and this one here, were opened and re-packed.
Now, that’s not something customs would do. They look at boxes, not individual cigars.
I grab one that had the wrinkled cellophane wrapper and another that had a smooth wrapper. They looked identical. They felt identical. They smelled identical…
No, they did not. They smelled different.
I carefully peeled back the cellophane on both and laid then next to each other for closer comparison.
The smooth wrapped one looked just like any normal Cuban cigar. The not-smooth wrapped cigar looked just a wee bit different. Like it was slightly, ever so slightly wrinkled itself, meaning the outer tobacco wrapper leaf had probably been wet and then dried.
The smooth wrapped cigar smelled heavenly. Like a good expensive fresh cigar should.
The not-smooth wrapped cigar did not smell heavenly. It smelled, very, very slightly acrid. It was terribly subtle, and if I had been smoking a cigar at the time, I would have never noticed. It was so subtle, so understated, so…covert.
I take a few deep breaths to clear my olfactory apparatus and hold the suspect cigar up to my honker for a great, prolonged sniff.
There it was. Acrid. Sharp. Acidic? Like tea, maybe? Nah. It’s there, but elusive. I’ve smelled this before, but I couldn’t place it. It smelled like. Like…what? Think, damn you!
I sniff and sniff. Then I close my eyes, clear my head, and just let my mind go on autopilot.
“OK, brain. You’re on your own. Do your stuff.”
I drift around aimlessly in the æther and I am suddenly reminded of England. London in particular. A layover? Nope, I’m on the water. On the Thames. With John, my well intervention engineer buddy. Boat trip to see the Thames Flood Gates, an engineering marvel.
He’s bringing me a drink. What? What does English John always drink? G-n-T. Gynntonik. Gin and tonic. TONIC! That’s it!
I smell tonic water. English tonic…with quinine. Bitters! That’s it. A bitter quinine odor.
There are over 700 chemical compounds in an unlit cigar. There are over 7,000 in a lit cigar. In neither of these are bitters, quinine, or any similar alkaloid. Might be some chemical nasties lurking about any typical cigar, but this has an adjunct.
These cigars have been tampered with.
Someone’s fucking with my cigars.
Now, my sedimentary senses are really tingling. And now I’m really angry.
As they say, it’s not paranoia if they’re really out to get you.
I get an idea. I bundle up three of the suspect cigars, wrap them in plastic, then a rock sample bag, and retrieve the Diplomatic Pouch from the safe. The cigars go into the pouch which I address it to my Agency buddies with the following note:
“Gentlemen. Please find enclosed a selection of cigars to which I was gifted at my last port of call. They are quite extraordinary. I’d appreciate it if you could run them through the HPLC to see if they are indeed true Cubans. If so, please let me know. I’ll bring back a couple of boxes for you and Dr. Donny. Regards. Rock.”
I drop the pouch at the front desk and they assure me it will go over to the embassy later on in the day.
That done, I go back to my room and carefully select a cigar. Smooth cello wrapper? Check.
I pour a really extra-stiff drink and decide to call Esme and see how things are going. Again, too late I realize I’m 11 hours ahead. I leave a quick message on the machine explaining I’ll be out and about for the next few days and I’ll call her when I return.
I hang up and think that I really should ask Uncles Rack and Ruin for a secure Agency satellite phone. All this snoopy, nose-poker-inner stuff is making me a little crazy.
Then I think: “Yeah. That’s just what they want you to believe. They might be orchestrating this so I have to lean on the agency more. It’s their way of drawing me in…”
“OH, FOR FUCK’S SAKE. KNOCK IT THE FUCK OFF!” I scream internally to myself.
Yeah, like I’m so important that the Agency is trying to scare me into their warm, comforting embrace. What a load of dingo’s kidneys.
I see my drink is gone and go to pour another. Old thought provoker, don’t fail me now.
I spend the rest of the night in a bit of a funk. I pack for my trip tomorrow, going so far as to lay out my field clothes. I’m at that much of loose ends.
I pour myself another drink to calm my nerves.
There’s a knock at the door. I answer and it’s maintenance.
“Yes?” I ask.
“Your toilet.” The maintenance man says, “Is broken?”
Knowing it wasn’t but no one else should know that, I stiffen visibly.
My room’s bugged, I just know it. Here’s the evidence standing right here in front of me.
“Oh, yeah. Right”, I say and show him in. He futzes around with loo and flushes it several times.
“Seems OK to me”, he reports.
“It’s not!” I thunder. I am seriously pissed off right now. “It’s a random thing. Comes and goes. Fuck this. I want a new room!”
He looks at me like I’m about to come unglued. He gathers his tools and scampers out the door.
I’m on the phone, calling the front desk, explaining my discomfiture.
“Yeah, this is DOCTOR Rock in Room 666. Your maintenance guy was just here and tells me the toilet’s fine. It isn’t. It’s driving me nuts. I would like to request a new room.”
“Yes, of course Doctor.” The front desk says. “We can move you down the hall, we can have someone up there to help you move in a few minutes.”
“Nope. I want a room on a new floor. This one is giving me apoplexy.” I say.
“Umm, Doctor. Well, I’m afraid…” he counters.
“Oh, don’t give me that tat.” I reply, “I know there’s hardly anyone staying here. Either move me to a new floor or call me a cab. I’ll go over to your competition. I’m sure they’d love to take over my room contract.”
“Oh, a thousand pardons, Doctor.” He quickly recovers, “We do have a suite that might suit your needs. It’s up two floors and in the center of the building away from the stairs and elevator.”
“Very well”, I reply, “Please send someone up and please have someone go to the new room to turn down the air.”
I throw all my shit onto the couch and get ready to make a quick shift. Hopefully, this will catch them unawares and I’ll have a more ‘private’ private room.
An hour and a half later, I’m in my new suite. I make a point to flush the loo and complain loudly to no one in particular that the hot water for the Jacuzzi is leaking.
Just testing to see if anyone’s listening.
Exhausted by the day’s events, I turn in.
After a nice cigar and nightcap, of course.
The next day, Mansur’s there right on time. Unsmilingly, I greet him and he helps me toss my gear I the back of the Uaz.
We proceed to the military airport on the east side of town. We pass through the gate and drive up to the enormous Hind 20A helicopter sitting there on the dewy, early morning tarmac.
Izel is there along with four others from the Geofizika. Mansur helps me with my gear and we all settle into our seats in the huge helicopter.
I see Mansur buckling in as well.
“OK, this is odd.” I think.
“Mansur”, I ask, “You’re going too?”
“Yes”, I was asked by the Geofizika.” He explains, “They need drivers.”
“Ah.”, I reply. Odd, but not unheard of in these new republics.
We take off and begin our flight northwest to the Aral Sea basin. On the way there, we have a presentation on the geology of the area and the Geofizika’s activities there. The helicopter is enormously loud, but with the headphones and internal intercom, we were able to muddle through.
The Aral Basin depression was formed toward the end of the Neogene Period (23 to 2.6 million years ago). Sometime during that process, the declivity was partially filled with water—a portion of which came from the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. In the early and middle parts of the Pleistocene (about 2.6 MA to 0.6MA YBP (years before present)), the region appears to have dried up, only to be inundated again sometime between the end of the Pleistocene and the early Holocene Epoch (i.e., about 11,700 YBP)—the latter instance being the first time by the Amu Darya, which had temporarily changed its course from the Caspian to the Aral Sea. After that, except for some relatively brief dry spells between the 5th and 1st centuries BCE, the two rivers’ combined flows generally maintained a high water level in the sea until the 1960s.
Around 1960, the Aral Sea’s water level was systematically and drastically reduced, because of the diversion of water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers for purposes of agricultural irrigation. As the Soviet government converted large acreages of pastures or untilled lands in what are now Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and elsewhere in Central Asia into irrigated primarily cotton farmlands by using the waters of the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, and their tributaries, the amount of water from those rivers that reached the Aral Sea dropped accordingly. By the 1980s, during the summer months, the two great rivers virtually dried up before they reached the lake. The Aral Sea began to quickly shrink because of the evaporation of its now unreplenished waters.
By 1989 the Aral Sea had receded to form two separate parts, the “Greater Sea” in the south and the “Lesser Sea” in the north, each of which had a salinity almost triple that of the sea in the 1950s. By the early 90s, the total area of the two parts of the Aral Sea had been reduced to approximately 13,000 miles2 (33,800 km2 and the mean surface level had dropped by about 50 feet (15 meters).
The governments of the states surrounding the Aral Sea tried to institute policies to encourage less water-intensive agricultural practices in the regions south and east of the lake, thus freeing more of the waters of the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya to flow into the lake and to stabilize its water level. Those policies succeeded in reducing water usage somewhat but not to the level necessary to have a significant impact on the amount of water reaching the Aral Sea. Later those same states—Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, with the addition of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan—established a joint committee to coordinate efforts to save the Aral Sea. The difficulty of coordinating any plan between those competing states, however, hampered progress. The Aral Sea today is underfit in its basin by over 90%.
We fly into Kantubek, Uzbekistan, just a stone’s throw from the border with Kazakhstan. It a dry, desolate, dusty dump pockmarked with the corpses of hundreds of fishing boats. This used to be a thriving fishing community in years past, now it’s a ghost town.
It was a town situated on Vozrozhdeniya Island in the Aral Sea. It is uninhabited and lies in ruins today. Kantubek used to have a population of approximately 1,500 and housed scientists and employees of the Soviet Union's top-secret Aralsk-7 biological weapons research and test site after the town was deserted by the native fisher-folk.
The Geofizika were conducting seismic operations here, as no wells drilled to date have found any significant oil or gas production. The thick layer of loess, or wind-blown lacustrine silt, was hampering operations. Vehicles, as we soon came to find out, quickly mired in the talcum-powder fine dust that covered the area.
The frequent windstorms picked up and threw around billions of tons of this material and made driving near impossible. Working outdoor on seismic operations was hazardous as breathing this junk could cause silicosis. It also irritated mucous membranes and with the past history of this place being a chemical weapons factory, there was the risk of inhaling some holdover from that era.
We wore masks. Hospital masks. I was not overly reassured.
We visited some of the seismic operations in some of the more protected small valleys.
Here, progress was being hampered by the corpses of all the abandoned, rusty Soviet-era fishing boats. They settled in these shallow, linear depressions as the lake’s water disappeared. They were left when the fish died off and all the people ventured elsewhere in the Former Soviet Union.
They were absolutely everywhere. Even though there are metal scavengers out here in the absolute middle of nowhere, their rusty hulks hampered the laying of lines and shooting and acquiring data.
Izel notes: “If we could somehow shift a few of these rust buckets, we could make so much more progress. But, they’ve been here for decades, it is so remote, and would be too costly to send out dedicated teams to haul them off.”
I had an idea. A wonderful idea. A wonderfully evil idea.
“Izel”, I said over lunch in the helicopter, “You know that I’m a licensed International Master Blaster, correct?”
“This I did not know” he admitted.
I showed him my licenses and accreditations. He was duly impressed.
“Now, Izel”, I said between munches of roast lamb sandwiches, “If someone could chop those hulks up into smaller bits, perhaps they would disappear. They look like they’ve been scavenged pretty well so far, but they just left the pieces they couldn’t drag off.”
“Yes. So?” Izel said. Suddenly my meaning became clear.
“Tell me, Doctor Rock”, he smiled, “What would it take?”
Three hours later, the helicopter returns with our order from the military. Spools and spools of good, old Western-branded Primacord. Soviet-style blasting caps, super-boosters, plastique, and demolition wire. Plus, a bonus, a Russian T-box, a plunger-style actuator.
Guess which got to go into my private collection when I left?
We spent the entire day scouting out and marking those hulks destined for the chopping block. Our one-day in-and-out has now changed into at least a couple of day’s operations.
No problems, we would simply fly to Nukus, and the Hotel Jipek Joli in Karakalpakstan. It was an old, government inn which had recently transferred to private ownership.
The hotel was…well, quaint. It was literally out in the middle of the desert, but the rooms were comfortable, and private. The breakfast buffet was excellent and the beer was cold.
We flew back the next day to Kantubek and I began wiring up the first boat for demolition.
Izel had called the ministries and the military. He informed them of our plans. Instead of objections, they asked if we needed anything.
We didn’t and I was having a literal field day. This was going to be a pure and simple, none-too-elegant, demolition project.
In other words, I had carte blanche to blow shit to smithereens.
We started out on one of the smaller hulks.
I wrapped that sucker like a Christmas tree with plastique and Primacord; recalling Grandad and Uncle Bår’s admonition: “One job, one shot.”
Of course, it took a little time to get it through the translators that I was the hookin’ bull out here, being the Motherfucking Pro from Dover.
“I’m the boss here.” I said, “Listen to me as if I was your chief, mother, or babushka!”
That got me a laugh.
They were now listening with rapt attention as Izel provided a prime example.
I explained my flagging technique.
I went over clearing the compass.
I gave notice about the air horn blasts.
I told them all about ‘Fire In the Hole!’. Three times.
I clarified what ‘HIT IT!’ meant.
I asked if we were зеленый, i.e., ‘green’.
After a bit of explanation, I receive a rousing chorus of “Да, Доктор Рок! Зеленый!”
Good. We’re all on the same page.
I got everyone to muster in the safe zone I had set up, ran my wires, and tied them in.
We cleared the compass for the first time.
We gave triple tootles on the air horn.
I yelled “FIRE IN THE HOLE.” They responded in Russian and Uzbek their versions of the cry.
I called Izel over and told him to handle the plunger.
“Right after I say ‘HIT IT!’, you try to knock the bottom out of the thing,” I told him.
Grinning like a maniac, he pulled up the handle, as I galved everything one last time.
I stood back, gave a quick look around. Everyone was accounted for in the muster area, no animals to be seen, not even birds…
I pointed directly to him and yelled: “HIT IT!”
SHWOOP! Went the plunger. He did try and punch the bottom out of the thing.
BLAM! BLAM! KABOOM! There went the plastique.
The dust had just started to settle as the old ship heaved a screeching series of shrieking sighs and fell apart into several much, much smaller pieces.
Success. As if you were expecting anything else.
We spent the rest of the day clearing hulks. We shot over 30 boats of all sizes that day. The success of the day was tinged slightly by the realization that these used to be people’s livelihoods. All gone to ground, literally, because of some stupid government intervention and interference.
We stayed that night at the Hotel Jipek Joli again. We finished late as they almost had to physically drag me back to the helo since I was having such a good time.
“Oh, c’mon, Izel”, I laughed, “I’ve still got half a spool of Primacord left.”
We flew the next morning back to Tashkent. Mansur drove me over to the hotel. I was in very serious need of a long shower to scrape a few layers of the Aral Sea, Northern Uzbekistan, and Karakalpakstan off my dusty epidermis.
We’d all meet tomorrow at the Geofizika offices to plan the rest of our activities.
After my shower, cigar, and fresh drink, I received a call from the front desk. There was a package for me. Shall they send it up?
“Yes, please” I replied, “I’m here. Not going anywhere.”
It was the Diplomatic Pouch from my agency buddies. Nothing in there but a short note.
“Doctor. Thank you for your package, it was much appreciated. Please have a look at the enclosed. Yours.”
There was a single sheet of paper enclosed in a tamper-evident envelope. It had remained unopened, I was cheered to see.
I ripped it open to read a HPLC chemical assay of the cigars they sent.
It read: “The cigars have been laced with 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) —1-azabicyclo [2.2.2] octan-3-yl hydroxyl (diphenyl) acetate. US Army code EA-2277; NATO code BZ; Soviet code Substance 78.”
The plot grows ever thicker: “It is an ester of benzilic acid with an alcohol derived from quinuclidine. Like tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), it can only be detected by a small portion of the population. The cause appears to be genetic. It is harmless, though incapacitating, in small doses.”
I knew it. Some was fucking around with my cigars. It was probably Mansur.
But why?
I called my agent friends back home and asked them what Soviet code Substance 78 was.
They said they’d find out and send me the results.
A while later, I am reading a text-dense three-page fax. In it, the explanation of Soviet Substance 78 was hiding.
“Soviet substance 78 is an odorless military incapacitating agent, known as BZ.”
“Well, not as odorless as they believe”, I snorted.
“The characteristic that makes BZ an incapacitating rather than a toxic chemical warfare agent is its high safety margin (ICt50/LCt50) of around 40-fold (range 32 to 384 fold). It has an ID50 of 0.00616 mg per person (i.v.) with a probit slope of 9.2. The respiratory ICt50 (median incapacitating dosage) for BZ is 110 mg·min/m³ (mild activity—15 l/min rate of breathing), whereas the LCt50 is often estimated to be around 3,800–41,300 mg·min/m³.”
“Well, fuck”, I thought, “Any good brand of vodka would do that for you as well...”
OK, time to reassess.
There’s my driver. Good enough character on the outside, but nosy, always underfoot, and quite possibly a tinkerer of cigars.
Then there’s this shadowy maid, Gulmyriah. Was she snooping around? If so, why? For what end? Who did she work for?
Then I remembered my spare Halliburton case. I opened it and sure enough, the game camera had fired and captured some images.
I extracted the film canister and replaced it with a fresh one. I’d ask Izel to have it developed through the Geofizika offices, quietly.
I also used a bit of the spare demolition wire I had stuffed in my pocket. I wired it from the flash terminals to the rice paper packet of flash powered I had created. I used a bit of ni-chrome wire liberated from a faulty blasting cap. Anyone opening the case would get their picture taken and a second later, have a packet of photographic flash powder go off right in their face.
It would be harmless as this flash powder was composed of finely powdered magnesium and nitrate, designed to provide an intense flash of light, little heat, and a bit of a report. It was designed like a ‘flash-bang’ stun grenade, but more flash than stun.
Anyone opening the case would be treated to a brilliant, though extremely brief, flash of light. Totally harmless, but completely detrimental to the interloper’s underwear.
I decided that even though it was still a bit early, I’d go down to the restaurant and have a spot of dinner.
I chatted with Marco, as once again, I was the only patron in evidence. Perhaps it was the early hour, but the hotel was still very quiet for such an establishment.
Marco relayed to me that he had seen a woman answering Gulmyriah’s description in the bar a couple of times. He mentioned that she appeared nervous, wasn’t too talkative, and seemed overly anxious.
He also mentioned that she might be from their new contractor that’s supplying the hotel with maintenance and security folks. He mentions that there have been so many new people wandering around the hotel, he’s not surprised he didn’t recognize her.
“Thanks, Marco” I say and ask for a fresh drink and tell him to have one on me.
Well, that’s just ducky. She might be a maid or she might be a spook. Or maybe, just a spooky maid.
The next day, I give Izel the film and ask him to covertly have it developed. He asked no questions and said it would be ready the next day.
We go over plans for our foray out to the Amu Dar’ya Basin. This will be a several day, potentially week-long trek, it’s that big. We would fly to Bukhara, just north of Samarkand, and then overland it via Land Rover to the various outcrops, oil fields, and production stations.
I return to the hotel and shift around my stay-at-home cases. I pretty much empty my spare case, the one in which I set my little booby-trap. I write up a note to place on the bottom of the case saying “GET THE FUCK OUT OF MY STUFF!” If the flash powder didn’t make it apparent that I was onto your little scheme, the note certainly would.
My photos weren’t ready the next day, which was no great shakes. We were off into the interior for the next week or so. It’d keep until I returned.
We flew to Bukhara, which is located on the Silk Road. The city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. UNESCO has listed the historic center of Bukhara (which contains numerous mosques and madrasas) as a World Heritage Site. It’s also the stepping off point for our visits to Gazli Field, one of the world’s largest gas-condensate fields. We’d also be visiting exposures of the reservoir rocks that crop to the north of the Bukhara Structural Step.
The Amu Dar’ya Basin contains a single total petroleum system. The principal discovered gas reserves are in (1) Upper Jurassic reef and shelf carbonates overlain by thick evaporites of the Kimmeridgian Gaurdak Formation and (2) suprasalt clastic rocks of the Hauterivian Shatlyk Bed. Other parts of the sedimentary succession, from the Middle Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous, are productive on the basin margins where the Gaurdak Formation evaporites are absent.
Source rocks for the gas are poorly defined by geochemical methods. Geologic data indicate that probable source rocks are the Lower to Middle Jurassic coaly clastics and coals and the Upper Jurassic marine black shales and marls underlying the Gaurdak Formation. The dominance of gas is related to the gas-prone character of the Lower to Middle Jurassic source rocks and to the great depths of burial and a high degree of maturation of the Upper Jurassic source rocks.
Our first stop is Gazli gas field. It’s located in the Xorazm Province to the north of Bukhara. It was discovered in 1956. It began production in 1960 and produces natural gas and condensates. The total proven reserves of the Gazli gas field are around 25 trillion cubic feet (714 km3), and production is slated to be around 479 Million cubic feet/day (13.7×105m3).
Gazli Field is a scientific anomaly. Here, the rapid production of gas and condensate by the Soviets had resulted in ‘production-induced earthquakes’. In 1976 and 1984, three MS 7 earthquakes occurred, seriously damaging the local town of Gazli, causing one death and near 100 injuries. An additional MS 5.7 event occurred in 1978. Gas was produced from a reservoir at approximately 2 km depth, hosted in an open anticline of tight Paleogene sandstones. This structure is cut by several blind faults and the MS 7 earthquakes are thought to have occurred on these. Fault-plane solutions suggest that they occurred on a north-dipping, easterly-striking thrust fault, consistent with regional tectonics.
Extrapolation of this fault to shallow depth suggests that it intersects with the gas reservoir. The Gazli case is important because of its implications for the maximum possible magnitude of earthquakes that could be induced by gas extraction.
This was one of the problems left by the previous owners that I am here to address.
We spend several days tooling around the countryside while all the data I requested is being copied by the Geofizika field office. They tell us it will take some time, but they’ll send it to the Tashkent office so it will be awaiting us on our return.
One day, after a tiring field excursion, we’re again out in the absolute middle of nowhere.
We drive to the little isolated burg of Uzunkuduk, Uzbekistan. It’s a real anomaly as it’s on the ancient Silk Road and an oasis, in the literal sense of the term, in the middle of a dry, dusty, desolate desert.
We decide to stop by, and it’s a single strip of few bits-n-bobs shops, a huge grape arbor, with attendant melon patches, and an outdoor, elevated deck. The agricultural bits are all centered on a prolific artesian water well, the only ’sweetwater’ for hundreds of kilometers in any direction.
The cold, clear water here has been flowing since time immemorial, according to the caretaker.
The caretaker is an absolutely ancient gentleman by the name of Shahram. He is quite the venerated citizen and has been the custodian of the well for his entire life. It’s a family occupation, as he tells us, the well has been in the charge of his family as long as anyone can remember.
He says the well is also very, very ancient.
“Very holy, this place.” He tells us, as he invites us up on the deck. But first, we must remove our shoes.
I’m a little reticent, as there are scaly, nasty, nippy creepy-crawlies all around here. But, since it’s so hot out here, and dry, I’m in no mood to argue.
We remove our boots and Shahram seats us. He actually instructs everyone where we must sit. For some reason, I’m seated between him and Izel.
He speaks no English, and I no Uzbek, well, other than the ability to order a beer. Yet, he’s sitting there, smiling at me in a frankly nearly unsettling manner.
I ask our translator if there’s some sort of problem. Have I violated protocol?
“No, he’s just fascinated with you.” She replies, “You are so big. Your shirt so…umm…colorful. He is curious as to who you are and why you are here.”
To be continued.
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32 Teams / 32 Days: Buffalo Bills

Buffalo Bills

Division: AFC East
Record: 6-10 (2-4 Division) (3rd in AFC East) (No Playoffs)
Hi everyone, it’s jiggs_ again and I am here to guide you once on the voyage long and strange that was the 2019 Bills season. This was not a notable season by any measure, but it still had its share of fun moments and big games. I am going to give you the crash course on why we got to 6-10 and how that is just so much better than where it could have been.


Overall Stats

BUF Offense Value (rank) BUF Defense Value (rank)
Points/Game 16.8 (#30) Opp Points/Game 23.4 (#18)
Yards/Game 298.6 (#30) Opp Yards/Game 294.1 (#2)
Points/Play 0.267 (#30) Opp Points/Play 0.386 (#21)
Yards/Play 4.7 (#31) Opp Yards/Play 4.9 (#3)
3D Conversion % 31.67% (#30) Opp 3D Conv % 36.45% (#9)
RZ Scoring % (TD) 59.46% (#16) Opp RZ Scoring % (TD) 70.83% (#30)
TDs/Game 1.8 (#28) Opp TDs/Game 2.8 (#19)


BUF Offense Value (rank) BUF Defense Value (rank)
Rush Play % 46.43% (#5) Opp Rush Play % 45.45% (#29)
Yards/Rush 4.2 (#21) Opp Yards/Rush 4.2 (#10)
Rushes/Game 29.2 (#4) Opp Rushes/Game 27.5 (#24)
Rush Yards/Game 124.0 (#8) Opp Rush Yards/Game 114.9 (#15)
Rush TDs/Game 0.9 (tied #11) Opp Rushing TDs/Game 1.1 (#26)


BUF Offense Value (rank) BUF Defense Value (rank)
Pass Play % 53.57% (#29) Opp Pass Play % 54.55% (#4)
Completion % 54.31% (#32) Opp Completion % 63.62% (#11)
Yards/Pass 5.6 (#31) Opp Yards/Pass 5.8 (#3)
Passes/Game 31.2 (#28) Opp Passes/Game 30.8 (#2)
Pass Yards/Game 174.6 (#31) Opp Pass Yards/Game 179.2 (#1)
Int Thrown % 1.4% (#31) Opp Int Thrown % 1.0% (#7)
QB Sacked % 7.59% (#21) Sack % 6.82% (#13)


BUF Offense Value (rank) BUF Defense Value (rank)
Penalties/Play 0.06 (#29) Opp Penalties/Play 0.05 (#23)
Penalties/Game 7.2 (#27) Opp Penalties/Game 6.2 (#23)
Penalty Yds/Game 62.0 (#28) Opp Penalty Yds/Game 61.0 (#13)
Penalty Yds/Pen 8.6 (#18) Opp Penalty Yds/Pen 9.9 (#1)

Draft Picks

Round Pick
1 9
2 40
3 74
4 112
4 131
5 147
5 158
6 181
7 225

Free Agents

Player Pos. Type Current APY Guarantees Resign?
Kyle Williams 43DT UFA $10,000,000 $4,500,000 Officially Retired, won’t re-sign
Vontae Davis CB UFA $5,500,000 4,500,000 LOL. No.
Lorenzo Alexander 43OLB $3,750,000 $1,600,000 Already signed
Ryan Groy C UFA $2,500,000 $3,500,000 Benched for Bodine. No.
Jordan Mills RT UFA $1,900,000 $400,000 Yes, sign for depth
Jordan Phillips 43DT UFA $1,090,727 $2,066,338 Must be re-signed, starting caliber
Derek Anderson QB UFA $1,120,000 $90,000 Already Signed, QB mentor
Taiwan Jones RB UFA $880,000 $45,000 Yes, but only if he gets the same amount or lower
Deonte Thompson WR UFA $790,000 $0 Yes, have him compete for a slot
Logan Thomas TE UFA $790,000 $0 No, draft a TE. Get him out of here.
Jeremiah Sirles LG UFA $805,000 $0 Resigned to one year deal
John Miller RG UFA $775,000 $680,000 Can do better, but he needs re-signed for competition.
Matt Darr P UFA $630,000 $0 No, we already have Bojo
Lafayette Pitts CB UFA $720,000 $0 Already Signed.
Eddie Yarbrough 43DE ERFA $555,000 $0 I love Eddie. Works too hard to not get a contract.
Reid Ferguson LS UFA $915,000 $445,000 Already signed. Absolute legend.
Deon Lacey 43OLB ERFA $510,000 $0 Sign the tender for depth. Zo won’t last forever.


In 2018, We made the playoffs for the first time in 17 years. As soon as we lost in a disappointing game to the Jaguars, it was time to fully come to grips with the near miraculous nature of our playoff berth. Before the season began, we were in full-blown tank mode. This roster was not good, and it had lost key pieces in Tyrod Taylor, Cordy Glenn, and Preston Brown. Sometimes, when looking forward to the future, you have to understand why you are successful in order to fully determine how to build toward that future. The Bills decided that we were still a bad team, and that we only had enough cap space to build on one side of the ball. You see, it really is a weird, almost unprecedented way to build a team. The Bills effectively ignored the offense for the entirety of the offseason, saying “it all starts up front” (referring to the new DL talents they just signed). So, by completely ignoring the glaring needs at OL and WR, the Bills chose to build a dominant defense. Here is how some of these moves panned out.

Review New Additions

CB Vontae Davis

I do not want to talk about Vontae Davis except to say he singlehandedly turned this defense around the moment he left at halftime. We completely kicked ass the moment he left. Addition by subtraction.

WR Robert Foster

This section should just be called "Robert Foster, and the rest of the additions". And you know what? I'm going to go ahead and rename it that right now.

Robert Foster, and the rest of the New Additions

WR Robert Foster

Ah, that’s better. So, anyways, let’s talk about Foster. He is insanely fast. Fast enough to beat most NFL CBs. He had some issues with dropping passes early this season, but those issues are long gone after the last few games that he had this season. He has insane quickness off the line of scrimmage that makes you think “how the hell did this guy go undrafted?”. And, to answer that question, you have to look at his production in college. He had less than 400 yards total over all four years at Alabama. Just seeing that was enough to make all teams turn away, but not Brian Daboll. As Alabama’s OC, he obviously saw a lot of Robert Foster and knew what he could do. So the Bills snatched him up.
Let’s check out the timeline for Robert Foster. He was a 5-star recruit out of high school touted as the next amazing Alabama receiver. He was promptly outclassed by Calvin Ridley and other amazingly talented WRs. He had a key drop or two, had some issues with effort level in practice, and overall ended up disappointing the staff at Alabama. Daboll has said that he wishes he used him more, but considering they won a championship I doubt it weighs on his mind much considering the results. Regardless, the combine rolls around and he runs a 4.41. Even that didn’t get heads to turn toward him enough, so he takes the contract offered by his former coach’s team. A coach that he knows can use him effectively even at the NFL level. He kicks ass in mini-camp but disappoints with 2 drops in the preseason. He barely makes the 53-man roster, but he makes it. He is in for a few games, and gets cut after another drop. He clears waivers and is put on the PS. This is Foster’s lowest point. In his eyes, he had his shot and he blew it. He was on an NFL roster, he was playing against top CBs, and he was open. But, he dropped the pass, and to him he probably felt like he dropped his career in the process. He could have just coasted from there and hoped for a job in the AAF eventually, but instead he listened, learned, and improved immensely. He said he had multiple conversations with Daboll regarding improvements and overall Brian Daboll and Foster have both said that the move back to the PS was exactly what he needed. It lit a fire under his ass, and soon enough he had another chance. This time, he didn’t drop it. Foster exploded for 3/105/0 statline and immediately everyone asked “who the fuck is this guy?” Over the bye week Josh and Robert didn’t go on vacation, they worked. They built chemistry the entire 2 weeks, and once the Jags rolled around Robert Foster beat them deep on the pass of the year, as voted by Bills fans. This was not the same Robert Foster. This Foster was here to kick ass.
All in all, Robert and Allen have progressed in the exact same way that it makes you instantly think that this is going to be a combo we will be talking about for years to come. The fact that their trajectories line up so well does not seem like coincidence to me. Foster is going to be a force. He’s got the physical traits and he’s got the attitude to make it work.

DT Star Lotulelei

Star has never been a pass rusher. He has never been particularly amazing at anything, but he takes up a lot of space and is a fantastic anchor. The argument I hear quite a bit is that he is a "dying breed" and that "DTs who can't make a difference in the pass rush are a dime a dozen". That argument is fucking dumb. Just because the Rams have Suh and Donald both getting multiple sacks doesn't mean it is the only formula for a good defense. All I need to do is point to our defensive rankings to help anyone understand just how good Star has been. McDermott's defense runs through guys like Star being in the middle to draw 2 guys. From there the LBs can make run fits correctly without having to worry if the Guard gets up the second level. It also help the pass rush around the edge. In fact, Jerry Hughes had a career year and was literally the #1 pass rusher in the NFL among DEs according to PFF. Need I say more?

DE Trent Murphy

I'd say he was a disappointment, but I think the expectation for him was more in a "maybe he returns to dominant form, and if not we can just refuse the team option". In other words, his contract was a "prove-it" deal. I don't think he proved it, but maybe the Bills think otherwise. He was not in on nearly enough snaps due to injuries and issues with actually getting to the passer, but he could have been far worse. He will be overpaid if he is still on the roster next season, but oftentimes you have to overpay for guys like Trent. Pass rushers are hard to come by in the NFL. Again, not condoning re-signing him, but it's not an absolutely horrible decision if we do. We have the cap room, and we could do worse than Murphy out there.

C Russell Bodine

Eh. He was fine. I don't want him anymore though. He just wasn't good enough to be a starter. Quality depth though.

CB Phillip Gaines

Lost his job as slot corner to rookie Taron Johnson, and credit goes to the coaching staff for recognizing that the rookie beat the veteran fair and square. Some teams might lean toward vets in this position but the Bills agreed that Taron deserved the starting nod. Gaines was cut later in the season.

WR Jeremy Kerley

Didn't really do all that much. He was a slot guy we forced to play outside and thus his production took a hit. He got cut early in the season due to the feeling that we should develop rookies and young guys rather than retain veterans.

WR Terrelle Pryor

Well, it was worth a shot. We kicked the tires on Pryor (heh, I'm a poet) and didn't see much upside. Got cut a couple weeks later after a couple bad drops and overall poor performances.

CB Ryan Lewis

He was asked to start straight off the Pats practice squad, and he was fantastic. Really solid level of play from Ryan, and I’m sure the Bills couldn’t be happier with how he has already developed. Makes me happy we could steal one from Old Bill Belly, regardless of whether or not he really pans out into anything more than a replaceable corner.

QB Matt Barkley (aka M_A_T_T_H_E_W)

What a cool story. Came in for one game against the Jets and kicked ass. Then he signs an extension to be the backup QB long term. Love knowing that we have a guy who won’t pull a Peterman if Allen ever goes down. He also has a reddit account, so if you are lurking here Matt, we love you Bro!!

CB Levi Wallace

Another great story of a CB who was on our practice squad for quite some time and then stepped up and played some solid football. He was top-5 in overall CB grades for rookie CBs on PFF’s rankings, and he was undrafted! Hoping he can continue being great, because he was another big piece on our top-tier passing defense

WR Isaiah McKenzie

I think I talked a bit about him in the game-by-game analysis, but this was just such a great niche pickup by Brandon Beane. Speedy, gadget-type receiver that could be plugged in anywhere on an offense, he is perfect for Brian Daboll. He’s a guy who can create mismatches underneath, and he was utilized very well. He is not a top-tier gadget player, but he is definitely good at that role. Hope we keep him around and bring in a rookie for competition as well. He has been stellar.

Potential Losses

Ryan Groy, Jordan Mills, John Miller

Starting this off with the 3 linemen. Don't re-sign any of them. They are replaceable talent and we have plenty of cap.

Jordan Phillips

He was an absolute firecracker for us in the 2nd half of the season. He was not spectacular, but in McDermott's defensive scheme (I'll talk about that soon), DI is a thankless position with very little statistical worth. He was never going to jump off the stat sheet, but he made the most of his opportunity. After any play he was up and yelling at the crowd to get louder and it worked really well. I know quite a few people who would be super bummed out if he was to leave Buffalo. I really hope we can re-sign him to a team friendly deal, because he was a great rotational talent.

Charles Clay

Just cut him a few weeks ago. Good riddance. He has gotten old and slow and his stats/film show that he only has a season or two left before he is an absolute liability. Just wasn't worth his massive contract.

Lesean Mccoy

He is under contract for next season, and Beane has said constantly that he would be on the roster next season, but I won't believe it until I see him in the game week 1. People keep saying he isn't much of an asset and that RBs are low-level targets for trades, but I see him fetching a 5th rd pick or lower. That could be worth it. I don't think it's worth it, but the Bills could feel it is. If we deal him I will certainly miss him but I won't pretend it was some sort of fleecing. He took a step back this season, and if that is enough for the Bills to trade him then so be it.

Kyle Williams

We're gonna miss you meatball man :(

Game by Game analysis can be found here and here

The Draft

Round 1, Pick 7: Josh Allen, QB

Josh Allen is still just as volatile as before the draft began. He is the reason I stay up late arguing on Reddit far too often, but he is also the only reason the Bills had any chance of ever winning a game this season. People ask where all of the offensive weapons are, and all I can do is point to #17. He was a great quarterback and a fantastic leader. I know what PFF says and I understand people have serious concerns over his accuracy and field vision. All I know is that for the first time in my entire life as a Bills fan, I trusted the QB to get the job done. Even on a 4th quarter comeback drive.

Round 1, Pick 16: Tremaine Edmunds, MLB

The key word for Tremaine is improvement. He steadily got better and better over the season and by the end looked like a veteran threat. He began the season struggling mightily in coverage and was thrown to constantly by opposing QBs. Baltimore and LA had a field day the first two weeks taking advantage of Edmunds’ rookie mistakes. River especially took an interest in making Edmunds look like an absolute fool, and ended the game throwing toward him almost 10 times for a crazy 7/90/1 statline. From there though, he really shined. His biggest issue was selling on the run too quickly on PA, and you could visibly watch him improve in that regard throughout the year. Couple that with his tackling prowess, his ability to fill gaps quickly and efficiently, and we are looking at a possible candidate for “steal of the draft” at 16.

Round 3, Pick 32: Harrison Phillips, DT

Horrible Harry is a 1-tech DT with issues in the pass rush. He was a top-tier run stopper at Stanford who was touted for his handwork and his ability to provide a solid push on 1st and 2nd down. That about sums up Phillips’ work this season as well. He never turned into a pass rusher or did anything spectacular, but he was a solid piece of the team through the season. He needs to improve on his pass rush because the Bills want him to move to 3-tech, but to be honest he probably will never get to that point. He just doesn’t have the mechanics that Kyle did, so he really can’t become the talent that Kyle was.

Round 4, Pick 21: Taron Johnson, CB

We all knew Taron as the dude who got hit in the face with a football at the combine. Little did we know he would go on to be a major asset for the Bills. Taron was an undersized outside CB that was considered too small for the NFL. He could not match up with guys like Nuk and Julio. So. the Bills drafted him and put him at slot. This sounds like an awful idea for someone undersized, because TEs are often in the slot. But, Taron was a scrappy motherfucker who did not allow for any doubt to remain the moment he hit the field. He was all over the damn place. He seemed to be in the backfield on every single run play, and in solid coverage on the pass. Overall, slot CBs don’t get a lot of love, but Taron deserves a spot in the conversation of top slot CBs of 2018. He was out for 5 games due to a shoulder dislocation, but if he had played the entirety of 2018, I think we could see him on some top 100 lists.

Round 5, Pick 17: Siran Neal, S

Siran was brought in on any down with an exotic pass rush. He got into the backfield on 100% of his on-field snaps, but he was only on the field for 6 of them. 100% is pretty nuts though. He was also pretty solid as a gunner on ST. Hopefully we can develop him into a solid backup safety for PoyeHyde

Round 5, Pick 29: Wyatt Teller, G

He played the final 3rd of the season and was noticeably better than John Miller’s dumb ass. That isn’t saying much though. He needs to improve even more if he hopes to keep his spot as starter. I am all for bringing in more talent to compete with him in camp, because it is entirely possible he loses the job. His run blocking was absolutely awful. PFF had him with a rank below 60.

Round 6, Pick 13: Ray-Ray McCloud III

Tough season for Ray-Ray. Fumbled a few returns, had some drops, overall disappointing. Just need to hope he improves.

Round 7, Pick 37: Austin Proehl

Cut after preseason.

Coaching Staff Review

This is always my favorite part. This section always seems to write itself. I want to first off start by talking about McDermott’s coaching style and why we have recently seen a massive shift in the type of coach that this team is looking to employ.

Sean McDermott

The first thing that Sean would want to be known about him is that he is a man of faith. I am not generally religious or spiritual, so I will just leave it at that, but I would be remiss if I didn’t mention it considering how often he talks about it in his interviews. Like, seriously. Radio hosts have even begun to question whether he will completely dismiss a player if he is known to not be religious (this was discussed in depth during the endless Josh Allen vs Rosen debates). Anyways, let’s now discuss some of his coaching habits because I don’t think I did that enough in last year’s write-up.
McDermott is a big fan of team culture and a team-first attitude. He talks about it constantly and he definitely “walks the walk”. He is known to work out with his players and he has meetings with the captains daily. McDermott tends to be in-your-face if you make a mistake, and the first to cheer you on when you make a big play. This is not to say he is the first coach to ever do things like this, but it should give you a little insight into how practices generally flow. From understanding how Sean interacts with the team, we can get a general idea in what he values from the people he works with. That includes players, coaches, staff, etc. Let’s talk about the coaches. Keyword for McDermott is CULTURE

Leslie Frazier

Frazier’s second year started out absolutely atrocious. Our defense let up 47 points to the Ravens in week one, and 28 points in the first half to the Chargers. We. Looked. Awful. I think my biggest issue with the Bills this season was never with the offense, because the offensive talent took a dive. However, I really had no idea how the defense that dominated in 2017 could be this bad in 2018. I specifically remember at halftime turning to my cousin and telling him that this may actually be the single worst NFL team the Bills have ever put on the field. The second half went surprisingly well and in garbage time Josh Allen looked somewhat decent, giving us a sliver of hope. After that game we found out that not only had McDermott taken over playcalling duties, but also Vontae Davis had retired at halftime. We’ll get into that later, but I want to mention it here to show just how low of a point this defense got to in the beginning of the season. Leslie Frazier was interviewed for two separate HC jobs in the offseason. Now his job in Buffalo was officially in jeopardy. McDermott came in for a press conference that Tuesday and he brought up two points right away. Firstly, Les was taking back the playcalling duties after a long discussion on how the games would be called. Secondly, Vontae Davis was officially retired. So much for that dominant defense!
Next up was the Vikings, who were an absolute powerhouse in 2017. We had low hopes. The Bills did not. Frazier got the game ball in a complete thumping of his former team and the whole locker room rallied around the veteran coach. To be honest this may be up there for one of my favorite moments of the season. The keyword for Leslie Frazier is RESILIENCY.

Brian Daboll

The funniest part about looking back at Daboll’s section last year was seeing that I really had no clue what kind of job he would do as OC. I came in expecting him to implement so many changes from the ground up in how plays get run, which personnel is on the field, etc. However, his real job this season was developing Josh Allen. He shadowed him on the practice field, ran long hours in the QB room, and generally played the role of QB coach. This isn’t to say he didn’t implement big offensive changes, but he did a fairly good job of working with the personnel he was given rather than forcing them into a system they had no clue how to run. Overall, Daboll isn’t Sean McVay, but he has been fairly creative in utilizing the swiss army knife that is Josh Allen. Key word for Daboll: VERSATILITY

Danny Crossman -> Heath Farwell

Danny had been with the Bills since 2013 due to his ability to get effective results in the midst of total dumpster fires. He survived 3 different coaching staffs, so he was clearly doing something right. Our ST has never been top-tier, in fact it was often subpar, but he was always touted as hard-working and no-nonsense. It seems like he took a “straight-edged” approach to his coaching, which would make sense considering he got his start coaching at the Coast Guard Academy. This style of coaching is not a complete 180 from McDermott’s methods, but it isn’t the perfect match. Sometimes you need a hard-ass to mix with the hands-on attitude in order to keep players on their toes. That being said, Crossman got the axe due to the inability of his units to stop long kick returns in an era where the return game should be all but dead. It was infuriating watching us try to field a kick. There were multiple chants of “KICK A TOUCHBACK” at home games. He was called out all season, so when he was fired it was no surprise. After getting fired the sub joked for a bit about which Panthers coach would be brought in, so we were obviously not surprised when Heath Farwell, the former assistant ST coach for the Panthers, was hired. Heath is unproven, young, and fiery. He is a former player who will be able to immediately identify with the guys on the roster and he known for wearing receiver gloves in practice in order to run drills with his players. Sound familiar? This guy was brought in because he is a McDermott clone, and he will get the fringe guys on the roster indoctrinated in what the culture is in Buffalo. Keyword for Farwell: INTENSITY.

Juan Castillo -> Bobby Johnson

Juan was hired by McDermott in 2017 due to his experience and results. He has been around the block and then some, so it wasn’t really a surprise to see him join the staff. The advantage to having a guy like Castillo is that he was willing to coach his team to run just about any blocking scheme needed for the task. Since the Bills in 2016 ran power blocking and switched to ZBS in 2017, the versatility was appreciated in order for them to transition well. Considering how awful the line was this season, and how long it took for young talent to see the field when they were clearly the better options, it was no surprise when Castillo was let go. Juan favored the veteran guys too much, in my opinion, and that led to guys like Wyatt Teller and Ike Boettger getting underutilized. Neither of those guys are amazing options but they are only marginally worse than the veterans on the squad and could have used some of the second half of the season developing.
Anyways, the Bills brought in Bobby Johnson, a rapper coach who worked under the Colts last season in their dominant system. Hopefully he can bring some of that into the Bills. He has not spoken to anyone in the media and he has never really had a position as OL coach before so there isn’t much known about his style yet. His keyword is: OG. BOBBY. JOHNSON.

David Culley -> Ken Dorsey

sigh another former Panther gets a job in Buffalo. Ken worked with Cam Newton and Derek Anderson for 5 years and has quite a bit of respect from Cam. Looks like Buffalo sees the Cam->Josh comp and is looking to develop him the same way. We can only hope it works like it did in Carolina, considering how fantastic Cam has been. Keyword(s): PANTHERS NORTH

Terry Robiskie -> Chad Hall

Virgin Terry getting replaced by the CHAD HALL. Chad worked with the WRs alongside Terry for most of last season and got promoted this offseason. Players seem to think this promotion was well-earned, and considering how awful our receivers played, I wasn’t really surprised Robiskie was let go. Let’s hope Hall can bring a new style that gels better with our WR corps. Keyword: PROMOTION

Overall RosteIndividual Player Review

Check it out in the comments here and here!!

Free Agency/Draft Concerns

Now ladies and gentlemen I don't have to sugarcoat this: our offense is hot steaming dog shit on a humid summer day. The 2018 Bills offense, you may remember us from such posts as "Are the Bills the worst offensive team ever?" and "Bills ranked last in offensive DVOA".
But no more! We have our QB of the future and now we just have to fix, well, everything else. On the defensive side, a different story, though retirements and rotational depth have spurned a few holes, they pale in comparison to our offensive issues.
With a metric fuck ton of cap space, and 10 picks (all our own plus an extra 4, 6, 7 via trades) we have the capacity for a quick turn around here. Picking 9th gives us a variety of options to hit a bunch of offensive holes
Bills draft needs ordered by necessity: OC, OT, WR, TE, OG, RB, CB, DE, DT
OC: With a rookie QB calling the shots, we cannot continue to have Russell Bodine and Ryan Groy at center. Russell Bodine was objectively terrible this year and Groy was mediocre at best. The ideal situation is we pick up C Matt Paradis from Denver. This is a capital investment. His presence as a top 5C sures up our line and opens our run game. Having a vet is invaluable to Allen's development and if we make one move this off season this should be it. If not, the draft should have numerous mid round C/G combos we can scoop up.
OT: Jordan Mills is ass. He just is. Jeremiah Sirles is not the answer. And Conor McDermott might not even exist. Hes been 4th on our depth chart for years. We need someone to pair with Dion Dawkins. To me, this is where we need to spend our first round pick. To me, the guy is Jawaan Taylor, OT, Florida. This guy is a mean, nasty fucker in run blocking and passable in pass pro. He reminds me of a neighborhood bully who beats your ass for fun. With McCoy and Allen, we need to be able to run through the tackles and open up the offense. If we go elsewhere in the draft, Daryl Williams is an option in FA. Hes a former Panther and God knows we love those, and would be an instant upgrade at OT. It is my opinion that Dawkins profiles as a RT, and Williams is a great fit at LT.
WR: I ask you all, to name our WRs. For much of 2018 Kelvin Benjamin was our number 1. When he went to KC he became an occasional jump ball guy. Yup, that's bad. Add in Isaiah McKenzie, Zay Jones, Vic Bolden, Deonte Thompson, Ray Ray McCloud and Robert Foster, it's not ideal. Foster and Jones deserve to be on this team next year. But this is by far the worst WR core in the league. We need a combination of draft and FA to fix this. In FA, I'm a big fan of Tyrell Williams. He provides us a big WR who can win jump balls like KB was supposed to. In addition, John Brown and Chris Conley would provide valuable help. In the draft I think we need at least 2 WRs. As we've seen in the draft lately, a run on WRs in the second round is our first spot. Guys like AJ Brown, Deebo Samuel, Marquise Brown, and Kelvin Harmon should be around this area and we need to get a receiver here. A mid round receiver also makes sense, one guy I'm very high on if we cannot get Williams is Hakeem Butler from ISU, a prototypical jump ball, physical receiver who will provide a big target for Allen
TE: Charles Clay got old, and then he got bad, and then he got released. I like Jason Croom but hes not a solution. For my money, Tyler Eifert, coming off an injury should be a guy we look for. I'm thinking 3/19 is a fair contract. Hes a pass catching TE that Allen relied a lot on when WRs couldn't separate and TEs in the flat have been an integral part of our offense. Either way, I do suspect a mid round TE on our radar in the draft. I could see a TE in the second round if Fant were to fall. Guys like Drax Raymond, Caleb Wilson and Drew Sample around round 4-6 will probably be our area of interest. We need a good catching TE in one way or another
OG: From 2018, the only returning starters are going to be RT Dion Dawkins and OG Wyatt Teller. We'll need another guard. We signed Spencer Long but as any Jets fan will tell you, he's not good. He might be a stop gap insurance policy at G/C but hes not a solution. Hes on a 1 year deal with 2 team options so its low risk. The guard FA pool isn't very deep and I don't expect a big splash. I believe this will be a draft position. Look for a 3-4th round guard. Definite draft concern, McDermott will be looking for a senior here
RB: Shady took a noticeable step back this year. Is he getting old? Maybe. But with a league worst OL he may as well have been fed to wolves out there. We also seemed to have more success running down hill with Ivory at many times this year. With Shady on his last year of his deal and Ivory also being old, we need to look to the future. We need a pass catching RB. I cant say I envision a RB in FA but I do in the draft. Again, we'll use our plethora of mid round picks. With the RB position becoming more interchangeable look for the Bills to plan for the future in rounds 5-6 because the clock is ticking on Shady
CB: We have Tre White, a lockdown sure fire CB1 in this league but need a CB2 to help him. Levi Wallace filled in admirably this season and I think assuaged much of our CB2 concern going into next year. However, if we can upgrade in FA we definitely should. I do envision a mid round CB drafted for depth but I would expect Wallace and White as a tandem next year
DE/DT/LB: With Kyle Williams retiring, Lorenzo Alexander on his last year and Trent Murphy being injured, we have needs for depth in all these areas. Envision some low level signings and some late round draft picks for these locations.

Final Thoughts

I must say, I am extremely excited for next season. I am hoping we can build on this core and be real contenders for the next few years. We have lots of rookies playing well in starting roles, we have the money to add veteran presence to areas of need, and we have a defense that was consistently fantastic (not a single starter is a free agent, either). So, we can expect the same type of dominance next season (I hope), let’s hope the offense can finally catch up.

Shoutouts to People who helped

pixel_pete and FriedChickenIsTrash were all a huge help this time around. Thanks so much guys!
submitted by jiggs_ to nfl [link] [comments]

Margin Call 3 - First Meeting - YouTube Margin Call (2011) Official HD Trailer Debut - YouTube Margin Call 4 - Senior Partners Emergency Meeting - YouTube The Gentlemen's Panel Margin Call (2011) - First Meeting [HD 1080p] (Re-Upload ...

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