F&O Margin Calculator: Span Margin Calculator Angel Broking

Public Service Announcement

Ladyboys, stop fucking up!
I see your posts and comments, most of you will have to move in with your momma if the losses keep piling up the way things are.
Options trading isn't simple, gay boi!
What options are for: To create a backtested strategy with a spread that tilts the probability of trading in your favour. You only enter when the odds are in your favour. This is the Hunger Games. And you're Katniss Everdeen in a skimpy bikini. Win this shit.
Now, options are usually planned with a weekly or monthly horizon.
Check this out: Nifty is currently at 9000. The expiry date is 16 April. You are bearish but are worried because the money printer keeps going Brrrrrr.
If you're smart, you create an options trade where if Nifty lands anywhere between 8500 to 9200, you make money!
Trades with breakevens like the one listed above could have a 80-90% probability of making money.
There are multiple ways to achieve this, of course. You could use a modified butterfly. Or a strangle. Even if the trade is going against you, you can exit with a profit! That's the beauty of options trading, IF executed correctly.
If you don't have the requisite knowledge, paper trade. Make option strategies online and post them here. The other Redditors will help you out. Or wait for the mods. One of us will definitely let you know. If they're great, we'll give you a thumbs up and a pat on the butt. If they're shit, we'll tell you how to improve upon that strategy.
There are layers to options trading too. I'm sure you've heard of theta decay or VIX being too high or premiums changing. There are tons of other factors which could destroy your trade. Even if your DD was right on, you could be leaving tons of money on the table. Never forget that in most trades with a good reward, the drop off is that you have unlimited risk. UNLIMITED RISK.
You like that, you fucking retard?
Now, let's assume you're a true Gay Bear who expects Nifty to go all the way to 6500. You've done some research, have some experience and would like to bet some money on your hunch. Fine, it's your cash.
Sell Nifty Futures! You still get the added benefits of crazy margins but you don't have to be right about the timing of the trade. All the complicated mumbo jumbo vanishes and all you have to be right about is the market direction.
So now, instead of Nifty having to reach 6500 by 16 April, in a future trade, it could touch that level by 16 July and you'd still be able to walk into the sunset with enough gold to give Bappi Lahri a complex.
Buying a Nifty 6500 put because you expect Nifty to drop to that number is beyond autistic. You're plain stupid. Switch to investing in liquid gold funds which give you 0.5% over inflation. That's where you belong.
Things to absolutely avoid: 1. Entering a trade without a stop loss. 2. Trading without knowing the margin required. 3. Lack of execution. 4. Not knowing the targets. 5. Revenge/emotional trading. 6. Trading without full access to your phone/laptop. 7. Entering naked trades.
submitted by Energizer_94 to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

I see a lot of questions about macro, so I tried to make a mini-FAQ people can just refer to. Let me know if I missed anything.

What does it mean when a lens is capable of macro photography?
You have a lens that projects an image of your subject on a sensor. That looks like this picture here. In this case, the Blue arrow is your subject, and the yellow arrow is it being projected onto the sensor. You focus a lens by moving back and forth to get that yellow arrow and sensor to align.
Notice the equation at the top, the closer you want to focus on something, the farther the lens needs to be from the sensor. You can see this for yourself, plug in numbers and see. For a 50mm (f = 50) if we want the subject to be 300 mm away (di = 300) then the lens needs to be 60 mm away (do = 60). But if we move our subject closer (di = 100) then the lens needs to be 100 mm away from the sensor (do = 100 too).
You can also compute the magnification of the image by the ratio of these distance. So when di = 300, do = 60, therefore we are at 1:5 magnification. What this means is if you are taking a picture of a subject 10mm across, it will be 10/5 = 2mm across on the sensor. Which means, for the second case, where di = do = 100 mm, we are at 1:1 which is macro. A 10mm subject will take up 10mm of your sensor. You can go into “super macro” which is when you go beyond 2:1. For example some lenses do 4:1, which means a 10mm subject would take up 40mm of your sensor. On a crop sensor (23mm accross) 4:1 would mean a 5.6mm object would take up your entire sensor.
Example of 1:1 macro
Example of 4:1 macro
All lenses are theoretically capable of macro, but not physically capable. The reason is because the closer you want to allow focus, the farther the lens has to be able to get from the sensor, which means a longer and heavier lens. For the vast majority who dont shoot macro, this is an unnecessary drawback. So often they pick a minimum focusing distance well before macro ranges.
For example, the infamous nifty fifty (the 50mm f/1.8 everyone loves) usually has a minimum focusing distance of 450 mm, which means, from our equation above, the image is projected 56.25 mm away, so the ratio is only 1:8 which is more than most people care for. Since every lens has to have a finite distance it can move to focus, every lens has to have some minimum focusing distance. Macro lenses are simply those that are long enough to allow for focusing at macro ranges. In fact some dedicated macro lenses can only focus on close subjects.
Do I want a macro extension tube or a macro lens or a macro optical filter or a lens reverse adapter
First lets compare macro extension tubes to optical filters:
An optical filter adds an optical piece in front of your lens. It’s changing your focal length. They are often bad because the optical element is one size fits all, and creates issues, and the lens is operating at a focal length it isn't meant to.
A macro extension tube isn't changing how your lens works at all. It's just giving you access to different focus distances. It doesn't add optical elements, it doesn't change focal lengths, it let's your lens function as is. This means a dirt cheap tube, will always be as good, and often better than an optical filter. The one drawback of an extension tube is you lose the ability to focus farther away.
Thank you to CarVac for the below note:
A doublet filter, like the Canon 500D, is very effective for telephoto lenses and doesn't hurt image quality much. But you pay for the quality, they run around a hundred bucks.
Tubes often do harm image quality. Most conventional lenses are corrected for a certain focusing distance and that's not the macro regime. So you may find heavy field curvature or astigmatism with tubes.
Now with that out of the way, here is a general statement I will standby. Everyone should always get macro extension tubes before a dedicated lens. Macro is a labor of love, and very difficult, you might hate it. Extension tubes let you experience macro without major financial investment. They allow you to use any lens you already have. And they can even work on macro lenses to make them super macro, or even on super macro to go beyond. I, for example, put the same macro tubes I got years ago on my 4.5:1 macro lens, and can attain 8:1 magnification. Get macro tubes first.
Thank you to TOMMMMMM for the below blurb about reverse lens adapters!
A lens works by taking a large scene in life and condensing the light down to the size of your camera sensor. When you screw the lens on in reverse, you are doing the opposite: taking a very small scene and enlarging it to the size of your sensor.
Here's a quick article I found on them.
https://expertphotography.com/reversing-rings-macro-photography/
There are of course limitations in that you won't have any electronic coupling to the camera, so you need to set your aperture and focus ahead dog time if using a fully electronic lens manual lenses are easier as you can adjust aperture and focus when using the ring.
Example of 8:1 macro This text is on an american coin, about 5mm across. This was only possible with extension tubes.
This calculator will show you your new magnification with a macro tube
Same calculator, different site
Ok what gear do I need to shoot macro?
I will be showing an example of shooting macro on a simple budget, but nothing I list below is the only option, many are just what I had on hand. First we need to talk about stacked macro photography. At macro ranges, your Depth of Field is razor thin, literally. As in, I have often found myself working with 0.5 mm of DoF. Stacked photography is where you take several pictures at different focusing distances, then combine them in post. So if my subject is 3mm deep, and I am getting 0.5mm of DoF then I will need at least 3/0.5 = 6 pictures, though doubling that is recommended for sharpness and margin of error.
Body
The camera body is probably the least important part of macro in my opinion. I manual focus the whole time, and usually manual exposure too, so tech means very little. I stack images which kills noise, so ISO performance doesnt matter to me. There are really only three things that really affect me. First being able to use an off camera shutter is very useful to reduce camera shake. The D3500, for example, lacks the shutter port I love on the D3200. Second is an electronic shutter without a mirror moving, it also helps with camera movement, but not as much, and isnt as important. Finally a tilty screen is a nice convenience for setting up the initial focus, and its fun to see the images as you take them. If you want to shoot macro hand held, which is easily doable, then a high shutter speed is also important. Often you will need to shoot off 20+ pictures while trying to keep focus, and having this happen faster is almost always better.
I used to use a D3200 with great success. Worth about $175 used.
Lens
The lens is actually VERY important, but you can do a lot for cheap. Wide focal lengths give you more DoF, and higher magnifications with spacers, while longer focal lengths give you more reach. For example, on my D800 I love my 180mm because it has enough reach to let me hit live insects, but prefer a 35mm for stacked work because it reduces the frames I need and decreases the effect of shutter shake.
I would use a 35mm f/1.8 on APSC because its my favorite APSC lens, super cheap, great working distance, and very sharp. Worth about $125 used. The 50mm f/1.8, and 85mm f/1.8 are also great options, but they will require a lot more work to get to 1:1 and often can never reach 2:1 or farther.
Tripod
A good tripod will save you a lot of headache, and while not the most important, is worth investing in. For example, I was shooting a flower for stacking, and at the end found out my $15 tripod was slowly lowering, like 1mm every 5 mins, but that was enough that I couldn't stack any of my pictures. If you have a light set up (<2lbs) the manfrotto PIXI mini is some AMAZING bang for your buck at $18. Obviously if you don't plan to stack, and while shooting hand held, a tripod does you no good.
Macro Rail
(This ONLY applies to stacked macro photography)
This is a place where spending helps but isnt actually all that necessary. One of my favorite macro shooters, does some of his work free hand. I will say that after moving to a rail, I will never go back for stacking. The most important thing to watch here is that you have a "worm gear drive" basically you turn a screw that moves the rail back and forth. You do NOT want a rail that you unlock with a screw and move by hand. You will NOT be able to move it exactly 1mm then tighten back down, but with a worm gear, its as easy as turning the screw a set amount (e.g. 1/4 turn) between shots.
I like my Neewer All Metal Wormdrive Macro Focus Rail, it is very consistent, easy to use, and solid. It is a little heavy at 0.6 lbs. Worth $40 new.
Light
For stacked photography:
You're lighting is important but personally I dont think its worth getting into. The problem with flashes are they take too long to recharge and can run out of batteries. I literally use a cheap af desk lamp I found in the garage. You can use your cellphone light if you plug it in. I am calling this one free because brand new I see equivalent lights at $8 and I feel like everyone has something laying around.
For hand held photography:
Lighting can make or break an image here. At these working distances you and the camera will block the light, which only compounds the need for it. (one of the benefits of a longer focal length, you don't block the light) The best thing you can have here is a flash because of the power and instantaneous light, it helps fight motion blur. The cheapest option is to take a normal on camera flash and bounce the light down, which you can do with aluminum foil and tape. The next step up is to use a flash cable, which basically gives you an off camera hot shoe. Its brighter, more effective, and gives you great control over the light. Finally there are purpose built flash modules for macro photography you can look into. The main thing you want to avoid are front facing flashes like ring lights. They will flatten the image, hide textures, and generally leave a less pleasing look.
Macro Spacer
These are important because if they are not sturdy, your lens will be all over the place. Tilt shift lenses are only fun when intentional and not from poor build quality. That being said I used the cheapest set on amazon that had 4.5 stars or more and they work great.
I am using some off brand spacer, its a 3 set that is about $20. I would suggest spending closer to $50 for something quality, but my cheap set has never let me down.
Remote Shutter
(This ONLY applies to stacked macro photography)
This is a frivolous purchase, you can macro without it, but it reduces camera shake letting me use slower shutters, and wait less time for the camera to stop moving. Personally I think its 100% worth it to get one.
I am using some cheap wired shutter that got off craigslist, it was $5 used.
Cost Breakdown (for stacked photography)
|Item|Cost|
|--:|:--|
|D3200|$175|
|35mm f/1.8|$125|
|GeekotoTripod|$50| |Neewer Rail|$40|
|Macro Spacer|$20|
|Shutter Trigger|$5|
The point I am trying to make here is that for $415 you can take great macro shots. Ranging from this single exposure of a cookie to this 3 image stack of a butterfly wing all the way to a 100+ image stack of a bullet. Macro is hard but very rewarding, and it doesn't require expensive gear. Sure a dedicated macro lens would work better, and sure an automated motorized rail does all the tedious work, but neither a necessary for a great picture.
Set up
Setting up your target is really important because it affects the image you produce, obviously, but also you cant really guess and check. With a landscape, I can try a few shots and see what I like best, with macro thats a lot harder. Think about what the final image would look like with a thin DoF. For example this spider head on and from the top lead to very different results. Personally I think the former is 10x better because the framing has pleasing composition, and the head on approach leads to a more intentional capture.
On top of that you need to think critically about your light and its angle. Unlike portrait photography you WANT harsh light to show off textures, for example the light here shows the texture of the grooves cut into the grenade. The angle matters a lot, remember the concept of "up" isn't entirely there in macro. You can backlight translucent subjects or you can front light to isolate a subject.
Take your time to set up your camera and light, otherwise you will waste an entire day to create an image you end up finding ugly and boring.
Exposure Triangle
Shutter - stacked
Being on a tripod its temping to let your shutter be as long as possible because "nothing is moving". At macro levels, the slightest movement becomes motion blur, even at 1/3 s. The exact shutter speed depends on your tripod, do you live on a second floor, etc. What I suggest doing is starting at your focal length (e.g. 35mm on crop is like 50mm on FF, so I start at 1/50s), taking a shot, doubling the time (1/50 s to 1/25) taking a shot, and repeating until you hit about a second. Take these images and pixel peep until you find the speed that has no motion blur, you might be surprised by it. For me and that aforementioned mess up, I needed 1/100s on a 180mm FF macro lens.
Shutter - handheld
With hand held photography, its really hard to say because there are so many variables. Is your camera and/or lens stable? Is there wind? How stable are you? How sensitive is your subject to your movement? Is your subject moving around?
The only method that works (and is what I resort to everytime) is genuinely guess and check. Try a shutter you think might work. If it does, go slower, and if it doesn't go faster. Repeat until you find the slowest shutter speed you can. Accuracy by volume, put your shutter on continuous high, hold the trigger for a bit, and see if you got it. Having a flash will make this process much easier, as the flash will help freeze motion.
Aperture
This is a genuine trade off, too open and you have no depth of field, too closed and you lose sharpness. At 35mm you need to be about 5 in away to get your subject in focus. At f/1.8 you have 0.03 in. in focus. At f/4 you have 0.07 in. in focus. At f/8 you have 0.14 in. in focus. At f/16 you have 0.29 in. in focus. From this along you may think, crank it down to f/16! but you get much softer images. The 35mm specifically peaks at f/4, but are you willing to deal with that narrow DoF? Personally I start at f/5.6 and then make adjustments as needed. There is no right or wrong answer.
For stacked photography, there is a slight exception. Its generally considered better to choose your peak sharpness aperture. You will need to take a lot more frames, it will take more time, the stacking will grow almost exponentially. Dont feel pressured to do this, but it is technically the best way to get the sharpest images.
ISO
For stacked photography its super tempting to pick base ISO, but you need to remember when stacking images, noise disappears. This was shot at ISO 1600 but looks like ISO 100 to me. And for hand held you often dont have a real choice because your dependent on whatever your shutter and aperture are. Dont stress your ISO, let it fly high! I usually pick an aperture and shutter speed, then just use whatever ISO properly exposes the image.
Other - stacked
Other setting I like using: Electronic shutter if available, if not mirror up shooting also helps. In some cameras this is called "Exposure Delay Mode" or something. I also like to set the camera to manual focus because I have hit my AF-ON before and it sucked. Your lens should be in the closest focus distance for the highest magnification and on a macro spacer. How much space you need depends on your lens. For my 35mm DX, a 35mm spacer gives me 1:1 macro. I also suggest RAW for the most detail recovery.
Shooting - hand held
Auto focus is not suited to macro, and often makes your images blurry. On top of that there is only 1 focus position to get the maximum magnification, so as soon as auto focus does anything, you're not maximizing your macro. Put your focus on the closes position. Put your camera in manual focus, and continuous high shutter. Slowly lean into your target, and right before the front of it is in focus start shooting. As you hold down the shutter, try to keep the subject in focus. After a batch of pictures, review for motion blur, make sure one of the pictures has correct focus, see if your DoF is enough and make any adjustments as needed. You may need to go through this a couple of times before you get one perfect to your liking.
Shooting - stacked
I have a set process for taking my pictures, it's not perfect, but I think it's a good starting point for you to take and develop your own off of.
  1. Set up camera, light, and subject, mess with as I feel until I find something I like.
  2. Camera is mounted on a rail, which is on the tripod, so adjust the rail until the front of my subject is in focus. Take a shot. Move the dial 1 rotation. Take a shot. Determine my DOF in terms of dial rotations from there. E.g. if I feel like the DOF moved 4x what I want, my dial turns are going to be 1/4 turns. I like to have the DOF have a 50% overlap, so I would do 1/8 turns.
  3. Move my rail so the front of the subject is barely in focus, then back up so nothing is in focus.
  4. Wait for the camera to stop moving. Take a shot. Turn the dial (e.g. the 1/8 turn from before). Wait for the camera to stop moving. Take a shot. Repeat until you have every slice of focus you want. If you are paranoid about camera shake, noise, etc. you can take 3-6 shots before moving the rail, but make sure you wait for the camera to stop moving between every shot.
Editing - stacked
There are a lot of workflows to editing, none are perfect, mine is far from ideal, but again is a great starting point for you to find your own. My workflow is:
  1. Rough edit in RawTherapee (free) for color, exposure, white balance etc. DO NOT CROP THE IMAGES.
  2. Align with Hugin (free)
  3. Stack in EnfuseGUI (free)
  4. Do a final and more thorough edit in RawTherapee (free)
This is definitely one of the places where money can make this process faster. Photoshop has a great stacking system as does Affinity, but those cost money. I also wont go into the details of how to use RawTherapee because its not specific to macro, and you can use literally ANY raw editor. Personally I have switched to Affinity for most projects because its easier and it goes on sale very often. Even if it doesnt, I think the $50 is worth it. That being said, since I have used and worked the free method a lot, and there are already good tutorials for the paid software, I will concentrate on the free process.
Hugin
Hugin is a free and powerful panorama stitcher, which I also love for its pano capabilities. What we want it for here is a specific subprogram within it called align_image_stack that is installed automatically when you install Hugin.
You use this subprogram from the command prompt, which seems daunting but is fast to learn. Hit the windows key and type "cmd" and run the program cmd.exe which should open the command prompt. From there navigate to where you saved the pictures. There are 2 important commands here. "cd" is to change folders. So you can say "cd Pictures" to go to the folder called Pictures. "dir" shows you the available options. Example. I would also suggest reading up on the basic commands.
One you are in the folder with your picture you will use the program by running the following [program] [flags] [pictures]
The [program] is where the program is located, it never changes. For me its
C:\Program Files\Hugin\bin\align_image_stack.exe
The [pictures] are the photos you want to stack. So if you saved everything as .jpg and they are the ONLY .jpg in the folder (HIGHLY suggested) you can just use
*.jpg
The [flags] section is just the modifiers you want to add, here is what I suggest:
  1. -v lets you see what it's doing real time
  2. -C uses the max cropped area so you can choose the crop later
  3. -a OUT saves all your files in a OUT0001.tif format
Here is a list of all the flags and what they do
My usual command is
C:\Program Files\Hugin\bin\align_image_stack.exe -v -C -a OUT *.jpg
This will take a while to run in the background, go sip some tea. When it's done you will see OUT0001.tif, OUT0002.tif, OUT0003.tif all the way to whatever number files you have like OUT0177.tif. From here look through the images and see if they are aligned. If they are, move on, if not adjust your settings and repeat. The best settings to play with are
  1. “-g” changes the grid size, lowering helps if the camera moved a lot, increasing helps if it didnt move, but there is a pattern that repeats which confuses the code. The default is a 5x5 grid.
  2. “-c” changes the number of command points per grid. The default is 20, but you can increase it to anything. The more you add the more accurate it will be, but the longer it will take.
  3. “--corr=” changes the threshold for what it considers the same pixel between images. If you aren't getting a lot of control points, lower this value, though increase your “-c” to counter balance is a good idea.
EnfuseGUI
EnfuseGUI is a simple but effective stacking tool. All it does is take images that are already aligned, then masks part of them into visibility based on some criteria. Here is the technical explanation of what each change does. If you don't care Here are the settings you should probably use with the important ones in red.
  1. Keep exposure to 0 otherwise it favors middle grey which you don't care about (this is for HDR).
  2. Keep Contrast to 1 so it picks the most contrasty (aka the in focus) parts of each image
  3. Keep the Saturation to 0 so it doesn't pick based on color, otherwise chromatic noise will dominate
  4. Force hard blend masks prevents halo-ing, but feel free to try without it
  5. Export to jpg mode to reduce file size
From here, drag and drop your images into the left side, and hit "Preview" to make sure you like what you have. If you don't, play with settings, if you do, hit "Enfuse It!" to make it run, this will also take a while, I hope you like tea.
A common error is running out of memory. If you load 1000 TIFs you will run out of RAM and it will not run to the end. The way around this is to recursively stack images. Right above the JPEG button you selected is "Bracket Count" Lower this to whatever the highest you can do without failure. Then import the newly stacked images (they will be in a new folder called "Enfuse") and repeat. If you have 1000 images and can do 10 at a time, you would need to do this 3 times instead of 1.
FIN
Now that you have a final image, you should be able to take it back into RawTherapee, or whatever, edit as you see fit, and flex on your friends with your sweet image.
If you are having trouble with the software I uploaded frames you can use to test the human error. These 153 images are after editing, but before align_image_stack onwards. I used them to get this final image so I know they work. Try working with them to learn the software!
submitted by OmniaMors to photography [link] [comments]

Bybit (For Advanced Users) Support Number 1+888-780-0222 [email protected]$#@$#@

Perpetual futures were a new concept two years ago, but they have since become more mainstream. While BitMEX’s perpetual futures are the best-known, competitors like Bybit have been making perpetual futures increasingly mainstream. Perpetual futures contracts are contracts with no set expiry date. They “rollover” perpetually. Bybit offers perpetual futures contracts with up to 100:1 leverage.
Another unique thing about Bybit is that the exchange allows users to trade in total anonymity. As long as you have a verified email address or phone number, you’ll have no issue making trades on Bybit. No KYC verification is required or even available. As far as we can tell, there are no limits on the value of trades you can make with an unverified account.
Bybit was founded in 2018 with the goal of providing cryptocurrency derivatives trading, including perpetual contracts. The platform caters to both individual retail clients and professional derivatives traders. As of 2019, Bybit claims to have 24-hour trading volume exceeding $500 million USD and over 100,000 registered users.
Bybit also emphasizes speed. The platform dedicates over 100,000 transactions per second (TPS) to every trading pair listed on its platform, which means users should have no issue making trades across any pair. Bybit has also suffered no reported hacks or security breaches across its young history.
Bybit has had no known major security breaches, hacks, or user data leaks since launching in 2018. The company emphasizes low-level and high-level security. The exchange is fully SSL encrypted to reduce the risk of phishing attacks. Bybit has also implemented a hierarchical deterministic (HD) cold wallet storage system for all its assets.
Another nifty security feature we appreciate with Bybit is the risk management system for futures contract settlement. Similar to certain other futures contract trading platforms, Bybit operates an insurance-like fund to deal with deficits in contract settlements. In situations where a trader gets liquidated at a level below the bankruptcy price, the funds are replaced with the initial margin that the liquidated trader had at the outside of the trade. The difference between the price at which the trader is liquidated and the bankruptcy price will be deducted from the insurance fund. Other platforms will “give users a haircut” and deduct funds from every user’s account in this situation.
As with other exchanges with minimal regulations, Bybit discloses little information about its team. We know the exchange is headquartered in Singapore and registered in the British Virgin Islands, for example. We also know the names of certain employees and the CEO, which is more information than we get from other exchanges. Bybit certainly isn’t the most transparent exchange out there, but it’s more transparent than many of its shady alternatives. Bybit is led by CEO Ben Zhou, and you can view additional employee info at Bybit’s LinkedIn page.
In the screenshot above, we’ve set the percentage at which we’re willing to take profit as 50% of the trading value. Bybit automatically shows you the expected profit in BTC. Bybit also shows the expected loss on the screen on the stop loss you have set (in this case, $8800).
You can also make market orders to get an asset at the best available price, or set up conditional orders to set an advanced stop loss for either a limit or market order. With a conditional order, you can post only for a long position or close on the trigger for a short position. Closing the trigger means you have to enter a price at which your order will enter the order book. When the trigger price is reached, the order will be delivered to the order book.
submitted by mitigations to u/mitigations [link] [comments]

GO Stadium’s Meta Guide: Sinister Alolan Marowak

— Something Sinister is Afoot —
We’re introducing a new Meta Guide Series in which we will attempt to provide a comprehensive look at Meta-centric pokémon, detailing matchup spreads and moveset tradeoffs and identifying critical breakpoints (BrP) and bulkpoints (BuP) so you know precisely how to optimize your IVs. Some outstanding content and graphics have already been posted from our friends u/JRE47 (author of “Nifty and Thrifty” and “Under the Lights”), u/Tangent444 (author of “Deep Dive”), u/Pa1amon (creator of this outstanding team building graphic), u/Jaydevin (creator of this helpful move count graphic), the talented folks at Gamepress and many others. Hopefully, we can shed some new light on moveset tradeoffs and IV optimization to assist on your Silph Season 2 journey.
 
— Terms and Abbreviations —
I know, dull but necessary. I often use 0S, 1S, and 2S to refer to various even-shield scenarios. Shield baiting is when you use a lower energy charge move to draw a shield from your opponent prior to landing the higher DPE move. I will also occasionally use a Move Sequence Summary to illustrate a bait-dependent matchup, such as (BC)-SB-BC—this means the first Bone Club was shielded and A-Marowak needs to land both a Shadow Ball and a Bone Club to win.
High Stat Product (SP) is generally preferred when optimizing IVs for PvP in Great or Ultra League due to the CP caps; however, breakpoint and bulkpoint considerations can provide a pivotal edge against your competition in key matchups. A breakpoint (BrP) is an Attack value threshold at which your fast (or charge) move now does more damage per move in a specific matchup. These are not generalizable as they are dependent on multiple factors: base move damage, your Attack value, and your opponent’s Defense value. Conversely, a bulkpoint (BuP) is the Defense value threshold at which you prevent a specific opposing pokémon from reaching a BrP.
L denotes a Legacy move
CMP – Charge Move Priority
DPT – Damage per Turn
EPT – Energy per Turn
DPE – Damage per Energy
STAB – Same Type Attack Bonus
 
— Alolan Marowak —
Hex + Shadow Ball + Bone Club
Fire Spin + Shadow Ball + Bone Club
As the best generalists in Sinister, Ghosts will be everywhere this month (Silph Scope not required). Alolan Marowak (A-Marowak) is the premier option among those Sinister specters, both well-positioned in the Meta in its own right and pairing exceptionally well with Poliwrath and Steelix to form two Meta-centric cores. The fire-wielding phantom has an outstanding charge move combination to pummel Steel types and Psychic types alike, allowing it to serve as one of the best safe switches in Sinister. With a true Fire coverage option finally in its arsenal, it can now threaten Steelix and Mawile, two previously reliable counters. Both Hex and Fire Spin charge Bone Club in just 4 moves, while Hex charges Shadow Ball one turn faster than Fire Spin (5 moves compared to 6 moves). This slight difference is pivotal in a couple of key matchups. So let’s dive into the moveset tradeoffs!
 
— Shared Wins —
Medicham, Gardevoir, Gallade, Alolan Raichu, Bronzong, 1S Lugia
Hex | The 0S Lugia win requires a Hex BrP.
Fire Spin | The 0S Lugia win is IV-dependent. A high SP Lugia can reach Hydro Pump to narrowly KO before fainting.
 
— Shared Losses —
Empoleon, Bastiodon, Poliwrath, 1S Haunter, ~Drifblim
Haunter doesn’t cleanly win the 0S. Shadow Ball or Dark Pulse Haunter can CMP tie in the 0S, but Sludge Bomb Haunter loses.
1S Drifblim is a CMP tie with a bait-dependency on both sides, regardless of whether A-Marowak has Hex or Fire Spin. Hex A-Marowak can CMP tie Drifblim in the 0S, whereas the Fire Spin variant cannot because it charges Shadow Ball one turn slower.
 
— Unique Wins —
Hex | Cresselia, Dusclops, ~mirror
Fire Spin | Girafarig, Mawile, Probopass, ~Steelix
 
— IV Optimization —
Hex | Would need ~109 Attack (110.4 to guarantee) for the Hex BrP to defeat 0S Cresselia (Raid IVs work well here). A-Marowak that miss the BrP can still defeat 1S Cresselia but now require the following sequence (BC)-SB-BC to secure the bait-dependent win, whereas Raid IV A-Marowak don’t require baiting. There’s also a Hex BrP against Lugia, but it’s only relevant in the 0S and not worth chasing although you might still get it with 110-114 Attack.
Fire Spin | No major BrP or BuP for which to optimize. It’s preferable to have high SP so you can double Shadow Ball against Bubble+Ice Punch Poliwrath while not burning a shield (sim 1 vs sim 2). However, an Attack value of ~109 (109.8 to guarantee) will net you a Fire Spin BrP against Mawile that widens the margin of victory, so Raid IVs work well here, too.
 
— Watch the Video Summary —
We’re thrilled to present a summary of the information in this new series in video form through our new collaboration with the supremely talented KitsuneKurisu. Check out the video breakdown of Alolan Marowak. If you like this style of video, he makes PvE Raid Guides and Community Day Guides on his YouTube Channel, so please go give him a subscription.
 
— Too many acronyms; did not read 😅 —
Hex | The better variant if you prefer a true Ghost. The slight edge in speed matters the most in a few key Ghost head-to-heads.
Fire Spin | Has a few more bait-dependent wins than the Hex variant, but the additional Fire coverage provides it an invaluable counter to multiple Meta-relevant Steel types. All about that bait, ‘bout that bait, no treble.
submitted by PolymersUp to TheSilphArena [link] [comments]

Under The Lights: Sceptile (Jungle Cup)

Death from above... and below!
So in addition to my Nifty Or Thrifty article each month, I spend the time between Cups doing some deep dives on Pokémon (usually non-"meta" ones) in the ongoing Cup that I think may deserve a little more attention, ones that might have breakout potential. Here's another! It's time to put a multi-talented 'mon...under the lights.
Grass is an interesting typing in Jungle Cup. It's not super effective versus much, and its most typical uses (versus Water, Ground, Rock) only very rarely show up in Jungle. The primary reason for their inclusion is operating as the best anti-Electrics available (not super effective, but they resist Electric attacks) and sometimes as a Vigoroth killer. No surprise, then, that the most potent Grasses are those that also carry other roles, such as slaying fellow Grasses (Venusaur), acting as a Fighter (Breloom), dealing big-time neutral damage from fast moves and getting around shields (Victreebel and the Razor Leafers), or not really acting like a Grass type at all (Cradily). So it shouldn't come as a great surprise that another Grass that popped up throughout the opening weekend of Jungle Cup is also very far from a pure Grass attacker... even though, ironically, it is one of the few pure Grass types.
Champion of the thrifty, more powerful than an overpowered Community Day move, faster than a speeding bullet, able to leap tall grass with a single bound! Ladies and gentlemen, I present to you... Sceptile.

SCEPTILE

Grass Type
Attack: 135 (at Great League size)
Defense: 109 (GL)
HP: 113 (GL)
Overall stats are very similar to Razor Leaf specialist Victreebel... pretty much the same Attack stat and 12 more Defense--but 10 less HP--than Vic. So roughly the same Attack and bulk as the Venus Fly Trap, for a basic frame of reference.
Of course, that's where the similarities end. The moves are completely different:
Fast Moves:
Fury Cutter (Bug, 2.0 DPT, 4.0 EPT, 0.5 CD)
Bullet Seed (Grass, 1.67 DPT, 3.67 EPT, 1.5 CD)
Charge Moves:
Leaf Blade (Grass, 70 damage, 35 energy)
Frenzy Plantᴸ (Grass, 100 damage, 45 energy)
Aerial Ace (Flying, 55 damage, 45 energy)
Earthquake (Ground, 120 damage, 65 energy)
Boasting BOTH of the best PvP Grass moves: the most powerful 35 energy move in the game (Leaf Blade) and the second-most highest Damage Per Energy (DPE) move Frenzy Plant (only Hydro Cannon is {barely} better). And perhaps even better, with Tropius banned, Aerial Ace makes Sceptile the only useable Grass Pokémon with a Flying move. Let me repeat that: Sceptile is the only useable Grass type with a Flying move. And leaving out Earthquake for the moment, that gives Sceptile THREE moves that all cost 45 energy or less. Pair that with big-time energy generator Fury Cutter (please don't use Bullet Seed... it is worse in every possible way), and you have yourself the fastest Grass type in Jungle Cup, able to outrace even the notoriously fast Vine Whip/Frenzy Plant to the first charge move.
What moves do I recommend? Maybe surprisingly, I think the one must-use move is NOT Frenzy Plant, but Leaf Blade, which makes this probably the only starter for which I'd say the Community Day move is purely optional. In fact, most of what I'm going to discuss doesn't include Frenzy Plant at all, as I recommend Leaf Blade/Aerial Ace as the moveset to run with.
With Fury Cutter and Leaf Blade, Sceptile still maintains the primary Grass role as an anti-Electric, taking down every single Electric (meta and non-meta) in Jungle Cup, including Magneton and the one that eludes Venusaur: Magnezone, outracing it to the Flash Cannon that 'Zone uses to finish off Venusaur. And even though it lacks a Grass fast move (again, PLEASE don't use Bullet Seed), on the strength of Leaf Blade, it still easily blows the Alolan Rocks and Lanturn... well, out of the water. (Go ahead... your groans only make me stronger! 😉)
But the uniqueness of Sceptile is more tied to its non-Grass moves. Aerial Ace is not a great move, as I've said several times in past articles, but that doesn't make it a bad move to make use of. Flying is super effective versus Grass and Bugs in Jungle, as well as dealing neutral damage to everything except Electrics (which Leaf Blade conveniently handles). Notably, Flying also deals super effective damage to Fighting Pokemon, so Heracross (Bug/Fighting) and Breloom (Grass/Fighting) are doubly weak to it... they take 116 damage and 127 damage (respectively) from a single Ace!
In fact, Ace is the preferred move over Leaf Blade versus all Grasses and Bugs, dealing on average 40 more damage than Leaf Blade to Grass/Poisons (allowing it to potentially outrace Venusaur, for instance...or just narrowly losing, worst case) and still 20+ more damage than Leaf Blade versus pure Grasses (like Meganium, who is also beats). In fact, Spectile can beat the majority of other Grasses, including Victreebel and every other Razor Leafer. The only Grasses it really struggles with are Venusaur (because, if I'm being honest, it does lose more than it wins there, though it is by a razor {leaf?} thin margin either way it swings) and Ivysaur (the extra bulk means it barely outlasts Ace and follow-up Fury Cutters to squeeze off a killing Sludge Bomb) and Grass-that's-really-not Cradily, which forces a CMP tie. And that's it. Sceptile can take down every other Grass in Jungle Cup, without needing fancy tricks. Just land an Aerial Ace and some followup super effective Fury Cutters and it's all over. It is worth pointing out, though, that Sceptile will usually need a shield to get there (and forces a shield on the opposing side as well). And it's also worth pointing out that, since it has a Bug fast move, it can take out Exeggutor with Fury Cutter alone and has the max of 100 energy to throw at the next 'mon up, more than enough energy for two Aces or potentially THREE Leaf Blades. Giddy up.
Aerial Ace, as mentioned, is also super effective against Bugs. Unfortunately, as a pure Grass, Sceptile also takes super effective damage from Bug attacks, so Ace doesn't translate to as many wins against Bugs as you'd hope. It DOES outrace YanMAGA to victory (JUST managing to beat out Yanma in a race to the killing charge move, and just outspeeding the slower Yanmega), and it can also outrace Scyther. And while it loses to Venomoth and Beedrill, it does so JUST barely. A Grass (much less a pure Grass) shouldn't be able to go toe to toe with hard counters like that... even mighty Venusaur and Victreebel and the rest just flat out die. Sceptile puts up a fight. Just... don't take Sceptile against something with a Bug fast move, like Vespiquen or Forretress. It's not a pretty sight....
It can even outslug tanky Munchlax in a battle of neutral damage, and of course rips through anything Psychic thanks to Fury Cutter, making especially quick work of Alolan Raichu... Sceptile barely takes a scratch!
While I don't advocate shedding what Aerial Ace does for Sceptile, there is even a case to be made for running both Grass charge moves. For example, look at how close it comes to taking down Vigoroth in a battle of neutral damage. (Sceptile can really dish it out!) It also picks up the win versus the one Grass that eluded it before, Cradily, though at the cost of having a shot to beat Venusaur and some of the Razor Leafers. Generally, LB/FP does better in neutral matchups (such as Vigoroth) and versus Electrics, but has to settle for no longer being a solid anti-Grass and having much less of a shot versus any Bugs. Not worth it, in my opinion, but there IS a small case for it, I suppose.
And while it's a fun move for Sceptile in general PvP use, I wouldn't recommend Earthquake here. It already beats the things you'd want a Ground move for (Electric and Poison/Grass) with Leaf Blade and Aerial Ace.
So there you have it: a Grass that can beat down Electrics (as you would hope), most of the other Grasses (a nice bonus), and even many relevant Bugs (which is unheard of for a Grass). I can't advocate for elevating it above Venusaur, but it may bear consideration as a potential replacement on certain teams. (And again, it DID seem to be on several successful teams this past weekend.) Venusaur has its place, no doubt, as do the Razor Leafers. But Sceptile does too. And it's cheap! And you don't need the exclusive move either... you can build one from scratch right now. No trading required! If that sounds like something that would benefit you, give Sceptile a look.
A shout-out again to the GO: Stadium PvP Discord (join today!), where I got some good ideas for today's article and others to follow this week. And as always, the simulated battles above from the new and improved PvPoke.com are a good start to the story, but they are certainly not the whole story. Run some sims yourself, test with Sceptile yourself (it's pretty easy to build one for testing on the cheap), and please: discuss! I always love to hear your feedback and any discussions that come out of these deeper dives.
Thanks for the continued support and for taking the time to read these silly little articles of mine. I hope you continue to enjoy them as much as I continue to enjoy writing them. 🙂 Good luck out there!
Next time, I plan to dive into another 'mon with exactly the same recommended moveset, but one that is nonetheless QUITE different.... 😉
submitted by JRE47 to TheSilphArena [link] [comments]

Niu NGT First Ride Impressions

Had a test ride on a NIU NGT last night. My scooting background is limited primarily to a Honda Ruckus (~5500 miles between two of them). I've spent a few hours on a Vespa Piaggio 150, and a test rode a People 50 a friend had purchased. Enough to know I hated it!
Overall impressions:
- Not as powerful as I was expecting? Maybe it's because it was so smooth and silent, but I was expecting it to feel like the 150cc Vespa I rode, but acceleration didn't feel as much. Again, this could be due to how quiet and smooth, while a gas scooter would be roaring and buzzing. 0-30 took very little time, but didn't feel like a surge of power?
- Feels REALLY balanced for lack of a better word? Just really overall "put together" and solid.
- Regenerative Braking seemed intermittent? It shows up on the dash when it's happening, but I couldn't figure out how to trigger it. Fully letting of throttle and letting it coast just coasted (I was expecting Tesla-esque 'braking'), holding down brake(s) a little bit didn't trigger it, nor did full/heavy braking. Needed more time where I wasn't following someone else to figure it out. I go down a big hill to work every day (400' of elevation in ~1 mile) so figuring that out will actually add considerable charge for me.
- I'm used to Ruckus center of gravity being essentially on the ground. This definitely felt higher, but vastly better than the Vespa which felt like the CoG was in the handlebars. Again, generally just felt really balanced.
- At the end of my ride, I ordered one. They had a White/Red one there, and I want Black/White. Got a call the next day (Today, 12/19/19) that Genuine doesn't have any in stock so it's going to be mid-January before they're available at the earliest. The shop I was at (Seattle Scooter Center in Seattle, WA) said they had yet to sell any of them. They had one NGT, two or three NSports, and one or two MQI+ on the floor.
- Interesting thing of note: Sport mode requires both batteries installed AND within 10% charge of each other. If you take one battery out to charge it at work, don't expect your ride home to be able to be in Sport mode.

Pros:
- Suspension is fantastic (I'm 6'4" and ~260lbs) and a dream compared to my Ruckus even after rear-shock upgrade. Felt great going over speed humps. I'd feel totally comfortable that it could easily handle another passenger behind me. The scooter weighs in at 240lbs (109kg) and it's rated for a maximum load of 593lbs (269kg), giving it 350lbs of useful load capacity. It feels like it?
- Dead silent. I've a full-face helmet (Shoei GT-Air) and could not hear anything with the thingy closed.
- Very intuitive to operate. Just like CVT scooter. Cockpit was well laid out too with important buttons in easy to grab areas.
- Powerful enough to smoothly accelerate to 30mph carrying me uphill. We never got off one way narrow streets (~1.5mi test ride) so I couldn't test on steeper streets. My Ruckus (took the same route back) took until top of same hill to get me to 25mph.
- Braking felt really put together. I didn't notice anything, but was able to brake very quickly to a full stop, much more so than my Ruckus or the Vespa I used to pass my endorsement test.
- Seat was really, really comfy.
- I did my test ride post-sunset (5pm here in Seattle these days) so it was what I'd call "Dark." The headlight on this thing was bonkers. I was following a tech from the scooter shop and my headlights on low-beams were illuminating his entire headlight area from 10 yards behind him. There's a nifty little 'trigger' on the left handlebar that activates the brights as long as it's held down - great for quickly flashing brights. Honestly, happier with the headlight than I am with my car headlight(s).
- Shop said they were looking at parts for the NGT and a new battery was only ~$250 and a new motor was only ~$350 which included a whole rear wheel, so you just swap the wheel and it swaps the motor. That is to say; long term cost of ownership/repairs seemed really inexpensive to them since parts were cheap and the labor was virtually nonexistent.
- Build Quality generally impressed me. Hinge for seat could've been better and floorboard for battery made me question how watertight it actually would be, but generally didn't have any concerns other than the metal arms for the blinkers (see below).

Cons:
- Metal arms holding blinkers on were suuuuuuuuuuuper flimsy and cheap looking and feeling. Absolutely plan on replacing them at earliest convenience.
- Wasn't quite as powerful as expected. Not sure I'd feel comfortable taking it on the big road here (Highway 99, speed limit 40mph) despite it (in theory) being legally allowable? Would need much more testing and experience before trying it.
- No information about cloud connectivity is yet available. Free for first year, then charge after that, but nobody knows what that charge will be.
- They adversise "360 degree lighting for visibility." There is zero lighting on the sides of the bike. Despite the red frame for the brake light extending around the sides, none of the light comes out the sides. There are two cheap looking reflectors on either side. I'll be removing them immediately and looking for ways to eventually install LEDs.
- Rear view mirrors were TINY and round. Didn't seem to fit overall bike aesthetic? Seemed easily upgradeable though.
- No information about accessories yet either. The NGT has essentially zero storage capability and needs a trunk. The MSport has space under the seat or floor (I forget which one has the battery in it), but the NGT occupies that space with the battery. There's definitely space for one to be installed, and there are accessories listed on the EU sites, but nothing here yet.

Final thoughts:
I really wish Genuine/NIU had waited to 'launch' these until they had information, accessories, and inventory available. They'll need to do a big marketing push in 'scooter buying season.' According to Genuine's "Info" line, they also haven't filed appropriate paperwork to classify themselves as makers/sellers of electric vehicles, so there's some question on whether or not they'll be eligible for EV Tax Credits (I hope so!). Additionally, trade tariffs add ~$450 to the price of the NGT, most of it coming on the batteries. Total off-the-lot price excluding licensing came to ~$5800 (we've 10.4% tax on vehicles here). I screen-peaked (sorry not sorry) and it APPEARED that inventory/invoice price on the screen was ~$3900, so I'm not sure how much luck folks will have negotiating much lower given that margin pays their wages/rent/utilities/etc. Seemed fair to me.
submitted by BabyWrinkles to scooters [link] [comments]

Best Trading Strategies for Nifty Futures

A directory prospect is a derivative, similar to a stock future, whose value is dependent on the value of the underlying, in this case, the index like the S&P CNX Nifty or BSE Sensex, and market profile trading strategies.
By making a trade-in inventory bank nifty future, an investor is buying and selling the basket of stocks comprising the index, in their respective weights.
Stock index futures are traded in terms of order flow trading strategies. Each treaty would be to either purchase or sell a limited value of the index. The amount of the deal would be the lot size multiplied by the index value.
About Nifty futures
Nifty futures are index futures where the order flow underlying is the S&P CNX Nifty index. In India, bank nifty futures trading initiated in 2000 on the National Stock Exchange (NSE).
For auction market theory contracts, the permitted lot size is 50, and in multiples of 50. Like additional destinies contracts, Nifty fortunes treaties also have a three-month trading progression -- the near-month, the next month and the far-month.
After the expiry of the near-month contract, a replacement lease of three-month duration would be introduced on subsequent trading day. Investors can trade Nifty futures by having a margin amount in their account. This margin may be a percentage of the contract value. It's usually about 10-12 per cent.
Why do you have to choose them?
Hedging. In simple terms, hedging may be a strategy that helps limit losses. Exposure to stock is like exposure to an index. this is often because most stocks move in tandem to the market. Exposure to index futures helps hedge this risk — speculative gains. If you're sure about future market movements, you'll make profits through index futures. If you bullish on the market buy index futures. If bearish, you ought to sell index futures.
How do they work?
You enter into a Nifty derivative instrument at a specified index value. On the expiry of the agreement, the investor's profits would be the difference between the extent of the index on expiry and therefore, the level laid out in the derivative instrument at the time of purchase.
Strategies to Follow:
Small stock, extended index futures.
There are times once you sell the capital, but there's an upside within the market, thus leading to potential lost profits. Index futures assist you in mitigating this risk. By buying index futures once you are short on the stock, you'll minimise the number of potential benefits lost: equity portfolio, quick index futures. There are times once you own a portfolio and are uncomfortable about market conditions. You'll hedge this risk by selling index futures. The concept vests on the very fact that each collection has index exposure and risks are accounted for by fluctuations within the index.
Long Stock, Short Index Futures Suppose you're long 500 shares of Reliance Industries at the worth of Rs 1,000 per share; spot Nifty is at 5,000; and Nifty futures is at 5,020. To protect your Rs 5 lakh (Rs 500,000) position from a market downturn, you would like to sell 100 Nifty futures. Suppose on the expiry date; the spot/futures Nifty is at 4,750 (5 per cent fall). On closing, both the positions, you'd earn Rs 2,000. Your job in Reliance Industries would have dropped by Rs 25,000, and therefore the short Nifty would have gained Rs 27,000 [i.e., 100 x (5,020-4,750)] Short Stock, Long Index Futures Suppose you're short 400 shares of Infosys Technologies at the worth of Rs 2,500 per share; spot Nifty is at 5,000; and Nifty futures is at 5,050. To protect your Rs 10 lakh (Rs 1 million) position from a market upside, you would like to shop for 200 Nifty futures. If on expiry, the spot/futures Nifty is at 5,250 (5 per cent rise), on closing both positions, you lose nothing. Your job in Infosys would end in a loss Rs 50,000, and therefore the short Nifty would have gained Rs 50,000 [i.e., 200x(5,250-5000)] Hedging Portfolio Risk Suppose the spot Nifty is at 5,000 and consequently the three-month Nifty futures at 5,015. To guard a portfolio of Rs 5 lakh (Rs 500,000) from a drop by the market, you would like to sell 100 December Nifty futures. Suppose on the expiry date; the spot/futures Nifty is at 4,500 (10 per cent fall). Your hedging strategy would earn you a profit of Rs 51,500[i.e., 100x(5,015-4500)], which compensates you for the Rs 50,000 (10 per cent) fall in your portfolio.
Costs Inherent With Trading Strategies:
There's a reason professional traders once only employed active trading strategies. Not only does having an in-house brokerage reduce the prices related to high-frequency trading, but it also ensures better trade execution. Lower commissions and better performance are two elements that improve the profit potential of the strategies. Significant hardware and software purchases are typically required to implement these strategies successfully. additionally, to real-time market data, these costs make active trading somewhat prohibitive for the individual trader, although not altogether unachievable This is why passive and indexed strategies that take a buy-and-hold stance offer lower fees and trading costs, also as smaller taxable events within the event of selling a profitable position. Still, passive strategies cannot beat the market since they hold a broad market index. Active traders seek 'alpha', in hopes that trading profits will exceed costs and bring a successful long-term strategy.
Thank you!
submitted by vtrender102 to u/vtrender102 [link] [comments]

The 4 Levels of Real Time Data from NSE, BSE & MCX

The 4 Levels of Real Time Data from NSE, BSE & MCX

https://preview.redd.it/e7tty173ldo41.png?width=400&format=png&auto=webp&s=66ad7fbd2532037e2add3672813273ccddb06b6c

Introduction

Real Time Data from NSE, BSE & MCX is distributed to various data vendors as 4 different levels. These levels are mainly based upon the amount of RealTime Market depth (order book) provided by the exchanges. This precision and the knowledge of Market Pricing is far more important for the day Traders than for a long term investor.

The 4 Levels of RealTime Data

There are 4 different Levels of Real Time Data from NSE, BSE and MCX (vary from market to market) :
  • Level 1
  • Level 2 / Level 3
  • Tick By Tick (TBT)

What is Market Depth?

Market depth is the order book or an electronic list of buy and sell orders. This list is organized by price level and updated to reflect real-time market activity. Most of today’s trading platforms offer some type of market depth display. This allows the traders to see the “buy and sell orders”, waiting to be executed. This could include the best bid and ask prices and the size of all the bids and offers. The Market Depth, therefore, mainly segregates, the different levels of the real time data feed from the NSE, BSE & MCX.

Level I Real Time Data from NSE, BSE & MCX

Level 1 data includes only the Real Time Data of the first level in the order book. This includes the Best Bid and Best Ask, plus the total accumulated Volumes Displayed as Bid Size and Ask Size. Depending on the exchange the number of orders might also be made available for each side as order. Currently, the number of orders are not provided by any exchange in India. The Basic market data is known as level 1 market data, and mainly includes the following information:
  • Bid price: The highest price that a trader has offered and is willing to buy the asset at.
  • Best Bid size: The number of shares, lots or contracts that are available at the bid price.
  • Ask price: The lowest price that a trader has offered and is willing to sell the asset at.
  • Best Ask size: The number of shares, lots or contracts that are available at the ask price.
  • Last Traded Price: The price of the most recent trade.
  • Traded Quantity: The number of shares, lots or contracts traded in the most recent trade.
Level 1 market data provides all of the information needed to trade using most trading systems.
If you trade a price action or indicator based strategy, then Level 1 market data should satisfy your informational needs. Level 1 Data is also sufficient for complex indicators, including Market Profile, Market Balance, Delta Divergence etc. If you are not doing Depth of Market Trading, Level 1 data is all you need. Scalpers who trade based on changes in how other traders are bidding and offering, will need Level 2 Market Data.

Level 2 Real Time Data from NSE, BSE & MCX

This type of quotation system is a step up from the Level 1. Data providers offer Level 2 market data at a premium to Level 1. It offers extra information that is neither useful for normal day traders nor for long term investors. Level 2 market data is also known as the ‘order book’. Level 2 market data shows the trader a bigger picture of the market order flow. This because it shows the orders that are currently pending for the market. It is also known as the ‘depth of market’ (DOM) or ‘market depth’. This is because it shows the number of shares or lots that are available at each bid and ask prices. In Level 1, the trader was only able to see the best prices for buying and selling. He could not look any deeper into the details of other less competitive orders on the system. The distribution of noncompetitive orders is important to institutional investors who plan to buy or sell large blocks of shares. Depending on the exchange the level of market depth (of the order book) can be 5, 10 or 20 levels. Normally the level of depth is 5 for Level 2, Real Time Data from NSE, BSE & MCX.

How can Level 2 Market Data be Viewed ?

Market depth data can be viewed on a separate Level 2 window or on a price ladder. Because market depth is in real time, it changes constantly throughout the trading session. A “Price Ladder” or “DOM Display” shows each price level in the middle column. The number of buyers at each price level on the left, and the number of sellers on the right.
https://preview.redd.it/wxsupr4eldo41.jpg?width=287&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cadf9b6371b1e0418eba9a0e79ecbc835af9c472
Another way to view market depth is to overlay it on a price chart, as shown in “Charting depth” (below). This is the same data that would appear on a Level 2 window or DOM. The only difference between the two is the visual presentation. In this example, the levels of market depth are displayed over the right-hand side of a price chart, next to the various prices.
Green bars represent the buy orders. The size of each green bar reflects the relative number of shares or lots that buyers would like to purchase. Red bars indicate market participants who want to sell. The size of each red bar reflects the number of shares or lots that traders would like to sell.
https://preview.redd.it/jn1a8anfldo41.jpg?width=287&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=db655173a57b7099762034d47b9c014f711f210e

Level 3 Real Time Data from NSE

NSE Real-Time Data also provides a 20 level deep order book. Actually, this is a subset of the Level 2 Data, known as Level 3. Here, Level 2 provides market depth data up to 5 best bid and ask prices. Level 3 provides market depth data up to 20 best bid and ask prices. Everything else in Level 3, is the same as Level 2. More details of the various Levels Provided by NSE can be obtained from the NSE Website (Data Vending Info).

Tick By Tick Real Time Data from NSE

The Tick by Tick Feed is provided by the NSE. This feed consists of each and every order or a change in the order. It includes:-
  • A new order accepted & added to the order book
  • Any order canceled
  • Or, any order modified and added to order book. It contains the new and old image (i.e. price and quantity) of the order.
  • Trade – when any order is fully or partially executed.
  • Market Orders added to the book
  • Fully or Partially Traded Market Orders
This feed sends a huge amount of data. For just one symbol, say, the NIFTY future, the number of trades goes to 200 – 300 trades per second.
And this much data is not easy to handle. It also needs better applications to churn out meaningful information from this data. This feed works best on collocated servers and LAN of the exchange. If you required this feed at your location, from a data vendor, you would need a leased line and also a specific software different from Amibroker or NinjaTrader, which is able to crunch the huge data flowing from the exchange with micro second-time stamps. And if you were able to do that, you would also need to be able to trade instantly. Therefore, this feed is not for the retails traders or fund houses. This feed is best suited for High-Frequency Trading (HFT) with servers co-located at the exchange.

Main Difference between Level 1 and Level 2 Market Data?

If you are a new trader, then you only need level I market data. You can always add Level II data, later, if you wish. Level 1 market data provides all of the trading information that is needed to display the Price Charts. This is what you will use to perform Analysis and make trading decisions. For many traders, watching the constant flurry of changing bids and ask Prices on the Level 2 will result in information over-load. This could actually have a detrimental effect as opposed to a positive one.

Can Level 2 Data be useful?

Yes, because it not only shows, where the price is now but where it is likely to be in the near future. Some trading strategies might require Level 2 market data. Typically, this data be used in a scalping strategy, where traders take advantage of short-term patterns are seen in the bidding/offering activities of other traders. Also, for example, if a big fund wished to sell 5 crore shares in a medium-sized company. Using level 1 data, they may see that the highest bid price on the market is Rs.2000 for 50k shares. The fund manager will now know that they can sell their first 50k shares at Rs. 2000. However, the fund managers will have to accept less in order to shift the rest of their holding. Therefore they would then trade at the next best bid price, and so on, receiving marginally less for their shares each time they exhaust an order in the market place. It would, therefore, benefit the fund manager to be able to assess how quickly the competitiveness of the bid prices trail off before they place a large block of shares for sale. This is called – being able to see the ‘depth’ of the market. If the competitive orders are thin on the ground then they may decide to delay their the sale or only sell a small batch. As a result of strong demand; the fund may be able to offload its shares without moving the share price down too much and achieving the best deal for their account holders.

Conclusion

This demonstrates why level 2 data is quite pointless for your average day trader. Trading in such small quantities will rarely exhaust the bid price or offer price which they could see on level 1. Other than very large institutions, the only other viable market participant who could fully utilize such data would be a high-speed, automatic trading the algorithm which pays extremely low commissions. Hope, I have been able to give you an insight on the various Levels of RealTime Market Data & their implications in trading.
submitted by TrueData48 to u/TrueData48 [link] [comments]

Derivative traders in India pay up to 500 times more margin, says study by SEBI sub-committee

India is the only country in the world where initial margin charged in the F&O segment consists of three margins. All other countries charge only SPAN margin
The study also found out that if India followed only the SPAN margin system it would have been good enough to cover the risk for 99.44 percent instances of At-the-Money (ATM) and Out-of-the-Money (OTM) stock option contract. Simply put, there is no need to burden traders with extra margins.
Higher margins result in a lower return on investment (RoI) for a trader. Ironically, an FII who has an option of trading both in India as well as in Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX) has to pay the complete margin in India but only the SPAN margin if he trades the Nifty derivatives in SGX.
With the same amount of money the FII can get better leverage and higher return if he trades abroad. And we are not even talking of the advantage he has while trading in dollars. No wonder volume in SGX has picked over the years.
Not only are margins high in India, but the way they are charged on various option strategies defies logic. Take the case of spread strategies. Spread strategies do not carry any price risk but they take advantage of volatility. Yet NSE charges a full premium for the short options -- almost equivalent to the margin required if the trader was holding short futures position.
Globally, the maximum amount needed to pay as the margin is slightly over the maximum loss that the limited loss strategy would incur. The study has found how Indian traders are at a huge disadvantage in trading various option strategies as compared to traders globally.
Indian traders are restricted by many other margin requirements and ad-hoc increase in margin in order to protect from events like the recent election. The unfortunate part is that these margins are sticky and tend to stay longer, well past the event.
Apart from the margins, various statutory charges are imposed on traders. India has the highest transaction charges in the world and these do not include the taxes one has to pay if they are profitable despite these restrictions.
Despite these handicaps, volumes in Indian stock and index options are among the highest in the world. If Indian exchanges follow global margin methodology Indian markets volumes would be untouchable, not to mention the huge opportunity for collecting taxes.
The report submitted by the sub-committee to the market regulator makes a strong case for aligning Indian margin management practices with global exchanges. The ball is now in SEBI’s court.
submitted by -D1- to IndiaInvestments [link] [comments]

Derivatives future and options

Derivatives future and options
Derivatives future and options
Being a developing nation Indian stock market a being very shallow in late ’90s. In early 2000 India introduces the exchange-traded derivatives on NSE and BSE both. With the emergence of futures trading on NSE India witnessed huge spike in trading volumes and major chunk of new participants entered in the market. During 2000-2008 Bull Run Indian traders make a huge amount of money in futures and options trading.
It’s been 20 years since the derivatives have emerged in India and we have seen a lot of informed traders are trading derivatives market as their full-time career and many also based trading systems have been introduced in recent past. ? So why anyone needs to understand the derivatives and how it will going to help in improvising the trading strategies and profit margin we’ll try to understand this in this article.

Let first try to understand what are derivatives??

Derivatives are the financial instrument which derives its value from the performance of some underlying assets. Any assets whose value are uncertain and cannot be determined can be an underlying asset for derivatives. For example, if we say what will be the value of Nifty in next trading session, intrinsically it is difficult to say where nifty trade will tomorrow at 1 P.M. So two people who hold the opposite view about Nifty can make bet on the moment on nifty and make a contract on this assumption. In derivatives scenario, these types of contracts are known as Futures Contract. Futures market follows the zero-sum game rule, which means one person loss will be the profit of other, financial assets such as share possess some value they create wealth but profit and loss from the derivatives market is being generated from the pocket of traders who are in a trade.

What is the importance of derivatives markets?

  1. Derivative makes Market EfficientDerivative market helps in replicating the underlying asset payoff. The price of underlying and its derivatives will remain in equilibrium which reduces the arbitrage opportunities in the market.
  2. Price Discovery – Derivative helps in determine the correct price for the shares and commodities. Financial markets are affected by all the major news around the world. How the trades interpret this information the prices of stocks keep on changing and helps in discovering the right price.
  3. Counterparty Risk – Derivative market reduces the counterparty risk as exchanges are very strict on margin norms, they take upfront margin from both the parties based on the volatility of stock so that counterparty fulfills their obligations.
There are different types of derivative contract such as forward future options, swaps, floor, and collar, etc. However, the most preferred derivative instruments are futures and options.
Most of the traders all over the world trade in options markets. In India, we have also witnessed that a large number of traders are trading in options markets. Although options trading is the most difficult and complex in all the above derivatives.
Let’s try to understand the options market.
Whenever we talk about directional trading, people are more fascinated towards options trading as it required very less capital and can generate a higher return. But as we discussed option trading and understating is not that much easy to implement. In the option market, there are basically two instruments which trader’s trader – which are known as Call option and Put options. Call options increase in value when the market goes upside and decrease in value market falls. On the other side, put options increase in value when the market falls and decrease in value when the market rise. With these, there are other complications which are attached to options which are known as Option Greeks, such as.
Delta – shows the rate of change of premium with respect to change in option premium. For example, if Nifty rises from 11000 to 11100 how much the value of call and put options increase and decrease in value respectively that is determined by delta. • Theta – show the decrease in value of an option due to passage of time, if the time to expiry is high means the expiry date is for the option value decrease is less but as we approach the expiry value of option started decreasing at an increasing rate.
Vega – shows the change in option premium with respect to change in volatility of the option. Option premium is also affected by an increase or decrease in the volatility of the market, higher the volatility the option premium will tends to be high and vice versa. • Gamma – Show the rate of change of Delta with respect to change in the underlying price. • Rho – Rho signifies the change in option premium with respect to change in interest rate in the economy.
Let’s take an example to understand options working.
Nifty is trading at 11000 and 11100 CE is trading at Rs.55. and the expiry is on 31st Oct. We are expecting that market will reach 11600 by the end of 31st Oct 2019.
Scenario 1. Nifty reaches at 11600 on 31 Oct 2019. Instead of buying the future contract we bought the call option of 11100 at 55.00. So we have paid Rs. 55 from our pocket that’s our outflow [i.e 55*75(75 is the lot size defined by exchange) = Rs.4125. (Total Investment).
First we need to cover out cost to be in profit.
So Strike price + Premium will be our break-even point in this case. i.e 11100 + 55 = 11155. We will start making money when the nifty will start trading above 11155.00 in our case. On 31st Oct Nifty trades above 11155 and closes at 11600 as we expected. P&L = 11600-11155 = 445 (So we earned 445 point on this trade. i.e = 445 *75 = Rs. 33,375.00 So with our expectation be right we make profit of 33,375 with just investing only Rs.4125.
Scenario 2. Nifty goes opposite to our view and closes at 10800. In this case, we didn’t close above 11155 which is our break-even point and we know that if the market goes the price of put options rise and price of call option falls. So, in this case, we’ll lose money. We will lose amount only equivalent to the amount paid which is equal to Rs.4125.00
Scenario 3. Nifty remains at 11000 only. In this case, when the market closes at the same price, the theta will play an important role here, as the expiry comes near our option value which we have bought at Rs.55 will start to decay and it will become zero if the market closes to below 11155. As in our case if stay at 11000 we’ll again loses money as it stays below 11115 and that will again be equal to Rs.4125.
The above calculation shows the simplest working of options trading, there is more and more complex addition to it.
submitted by adomcruze to u/adomcruze [link] [comments]

Under The Lights: Razor Leafers (Rainbow Cup)

So in addition to my Nifty Or Thrifty article each month, I spend the time between NoT articles with some deeper examinations of non-"meta" Pokémon in the current Cup that I think may deserve a little more attention, ones that might have breakout potential. Here's another! This time we are putting several such 'mons...under the lights.
Grass as a type in Rainbow Cup is highlighted by Frenzy Plant. The first of the busted Community Day starter moves (back from just the second Community Day ever), Frenzy Plant deals a ridiculous 100 damage for only 45 energy, the second highest Damage Per Energy (DPE) available in the game (2.22, which is ahead of Blast Burn and trailing only the equally-busted Hydro Cannon). The two eligible Pokémon that have it also both have Vine Whip, an excellent move that generates energy quickly (4.0 Energy Per Turn (EPT)) with only slightly below average Damage Per Turn (DPT) at 2.5 (3.0 is generally considered average). It is this moveset combination, along with a good secondary move in Sludge Bomb, that has put Venusaur as the reigning Grass king in Rainbow Cup (and really any tournament he's been eligible in so far). He is the Grass to beat and I can't imagine NOT having him on my team of six in Rainbow Cup.
That all being said... this article is NOT about Venusaur. Or Frenzy Plant. Or even Vine Whip. This is instead about the primary alterative and perhaps more infamous Grass strategy, and the main candidates that fall into that camp. I'm talking about the Razor Leafers.
Razor Leaf is the other Grass fast move useful in PvP other than Vine Whip. (No, don't even mention Bullet Seed. It doesn't count. Really, it's bad... even the few seconds it is taking me to type this is more time than it is worth.) Unlike the high energy but so-so damage output of Whip, Razor Leaf is used to just shred things up without even needing charge moves. It has the highest DPT in the game (a whopping 5.5 DPT, a full point and a half above everything else), though at the cost of low EPT (only 2.0, a snail's pace). But that's okay, because when done right, Razor Leaf can take down its targets, on its own, before any charge moves even come into play (like versus Quagsire and Lanturn). Even if it doesn't manage to beat out charge move use, Razor Leafers can often obliterate things weak to Grass with only fast moves, taking the opponent's shields out of the equation, or at worst, absolutely ensuring they have to burn one just to survive the fast move onslaught. For this reason, Razor Leafers typically do not make very good leads (unless you can catch something like Quagsire as the lead on the opponent's team), and are generally better saved for the back end of each game when shields are gone or when you can get in that last bit of damage on the power of Razor Leaf alone. At 5.5 DPT, it quickly rips chunks of life off things that aren't even weak to Grass (Electrics like Raichu and neutral-to-Grass Kingdra, Tentacruel, and even Fire-wielding Magcargo) and even some things that RESIST Grass (like Heracross and Magneton).
There's a reason Razor Leaf has been generating buzz since all the way back in Twilight Cup (and REALLY in earnest since Tropius broke onto the scene in Tempest Cup). Lots of reasons, actually, like those above!
But this is more than just a specific move analysis. As you probably know by now, my articles (and the Under The Lights features especially) focus on very specific Pokémon. So let's do that! Here are the most relevant Rainbow Cup Pokémon that have access to the powerful Razor Leaf, now in technicolor table form!
(Razor Leaf as a Legacy move marked with an ᴸ)
Pokémon Type(s) GL Attack GL Defense GL HP Recommended Charge Moves (Typing) Other Charge Moves (Typing)
Victreebel Grass/Poison 139 91 127 Leaf Blade (G), Sludge Bomb (P) Acid Spray (P), Leaf Tornado (G), Solar Beam (G)
Bellossom Grass 117 129 125 Leaf Blade (G), Dazzling Gleam (F) Petal Blizzard (G)
Gloom Grass/Poison 126 112 127 Sludge Bomb (P), Moonblast (F) Petal Blizzard (G)
Sunflora Grass 133 97 130 Sludge Bomb (P) Petal Blizzard (G), Solar Beam (G)
Weepinbell Grass/Poison 143 80 136 Seed Bomb (G), Sludge Bomb (P) Power Whip (G)
Bayleef Grass 108 134 134 Grass Knot (G), Ancient Power (R) Energy Ball (G)
First let's quick discuss what's NOT listed: the Vine Whippers. My reasoning is simple: running Razor Leaf on Venusaur, Meganium, and even Ivysaur is, quite frankly, a waste of potential. Remember that Vine Whip generates energy literally twice as fast as Razor Leaf, and with those three, you want to fire off as many of their potent charge moves as possible. (Ivy lacks Frenzy Plant, but Power Whip is a close approximation.) The Grass charge moves are important, but their secondary moves are just as (if not even more) important for critical coverage. The 'Saurs NEED Sludge Bomb as a legit threat to Fires and Bugs that can otherwise check them completely unfettered, and to have a leg up against opposing Grasses. Meganium NEEDS Earthquake--which already feels slow even with Whip's high EPT--for similar reasons. They'll never get there with Razor Leaf, and the opponent will know it. Yes, Razor Leaf may make any Waters they have in there suffer a bit worse than with Vine Whip, but all important versatility and shield pressure will be gone. Don't do it... especially since there are plenty of other powerful Razor Leafers to choose from.
The first and probably most well-rounded one I will cover is Victreebel. Vic started to make a name for itself in the closing days of Twilight Cup as a check to Azumarill and Tentacruel and the Nidos that could also shred a number of other meta picks that took neutral damage from the then-recently-buffed Razor Leaf. (Sableye, Froslass, Alolan Ninetails, and several others.) Even then, Venusaur with Frenzy Plant was king, but the sheer speed at which Razor Leaf took things down got Vic some play. And you know what? I think it is still the best option available in any Cup that doesn't include Tropius. As you can see in the chart above, it has a big Attack stat (trailing only its pre-evolution). Normally, that's not a good thing in PvP, as high Attack stats mean higher CP and lower overall Defense and/or HP. However, with a move like Razor Leaf, where you want to deal as much raw damage as possible with each hit, this is the rare exception to the rule. Victreebel can kill Lanturn before it reaches a charge move with just Razor Leaf while, for example, Bellossom cannot. Same move, but the extra damage behind each RL with Vic's higher attack means it does the job, while Bellossom falls short and allows Lanturn to squeeze off a Thunderbolt. But Victreebel's main advantages are its charge moves. Leaf Blade is probably the best possible move to pair with Razor Leaf, needing only 35 energy to fire off an impressive 70 damage. Even with slow charging Razor Leaf, that's only nine seconds on average... slow, but not TOO slow. You can get to a Leaf Tornado for only one more Razor Leaf, but my personal recommendation is to add Sludge Bomb as the second move--even though it requires a total of a painfully slow thirteen Razor Leafs--to give it the same versatile threat as Venusaur. You could also argue for Acid Spray--with the same cost as Bomb--as a "parting gift" before Vic bites the dust, but in my opinion, when you're using a Razor Leafer, the name of the game is damage damage DAMAGE, so for me it's Leaf Blade/Sludge Bomb. Vic is unique among RLers in having Spray (and Tornado!) though, so if messing with the opponent's stats and weakening their Pokémon is your game, go for it.
Victreebel beats every Water type in Rainbow Cup other than a tie against the flying Mantine and Confusioner Slowbro (in a battle of super effective charge moves flying back and forth). It deletes Quagsire like nothing else can (not even Venusaur) and far outperforms Venusaur versus the likes of Politoed (Vic, Venu), Poliwrath (Vic), Venu, Lanturn (Vic, Venu) and others, typically because it wins with Razor Leaf alone and usually does not even need a shield (while Venusaur almost always does). It maintains similar (though usually slightly better) win margins as Venusaur against the other Waters, and also like Venusaur, Victreebel defeats each and every Electric type as well. Unfortunately, Vic is also similar to Venusaur in other matchups, meaning it is at a severe disadvantage against Fire types and most Bugs... matchups Venusaur can sometimes turn around via Sludge Bomb (whereas Vic almost never can due to the extreme energy difference in the fast moves). Vic also defeats only a small handful of pure Grass types and struggles versus most Grasses, whereas Venusaur can again race to a Sludge Bomb or two and turn some defeats into wins. The nutshell is this: Victreebel is better than Venusaur at winning matchups where you most want to be using Grass--versus Water and Electric, some of which it wins with most of its life left and no shields burned--but overall worse in the more iffy matchups, most notably versus other Grasses where Venusaur with its fast-charging Vine Whip has a distinct advantage. It's sort of like the Charizard of Grass types in that it wins big AND loses big. But man, are those wins demoralizing for the opponent.
The same is mostly true of the rest of the Razor Leafers, with some key differences I will attempt to cover briefly. Bellossom is the closest comp to Victreebel, having the same RazorBlade (haha see what I did there? I so funny) move combo as Vic. It also has Dazzling Gleam, which would be more intriguing if A.) it didn't cost a whopping 70 energy to fire, so you won't be getting to it often (if at all), and B.) Fairy didn't lack any real super effective targets in Rainbow Cup. As it is, you will almost certainly end up using only Leaf Blade as the charge move, which is far from a bad thing. But the key distinction between Bell and Vic is the typing. Bellossom is pure Grass, and without Vic's Poison subtyping, it gets hit a LOT harder by anything with Poison moves, like Tentacruel (where it BARELY hangs on for the win, which is comparatively easy for Vic and Venu) and the Grasses with Poison moves (oooooof). On the flipside, not being part Poison means Bell shrugs off Psychic attacks better, so it does a much better job than Victreebel and even Venusaur versus Slowbro (where it could even theoretically outrace Bro to its one and only Ice Beam) and Exeggutor (who conversely pummels Victreebel and especially Venusaur). In summary, Bellossom is in some ways superior to Vic AND the mighty Venusaur, but in the general matchups where you want Grass to shine, the Poison typing of Vic is more of an advantage, leaving Bellossom disadvantaged in comparison.
The next two are kind of baby Vic and baby Bell (mmmmm, you ever had Babybel cheese? I must be hungry. ANYway.....). Gloom is sort of a miniature Victreebel, keeping Sludge Bomb (but losing Leaf Blade), and winning virtually all the same matchups (with the exception of losing the tie Vic is able to force against Mantine due to the Attack power difference and loss of access to Vic's Leaf Blade. Gloom does gain Moonblast, akin to Bell's Dazzling Gleam... Blast is strictly better, but still requires 70 energy, so is realistically probably again a no-go. It also does a hair worse versus Magneton, for what that's worth (but holds on against the other Electrics). The main advantage to Gloom, such as it is, lies in it being potentially easier to build than Victreebel or Bellossom, as Oddishes are very common and were as thick as blades of grass in the earlier days of Pokémon Go. You likely have a ready-made Gloom sitting on your bench already.
Sunflora's goofy demeanor belies unexpected power. With an Attack stat over 130, it is the only pure Grass that can defeat Quagsire before it can use any of its charge moves, something nothing else on this list without a "bel" at the end of its name can claim. It is also the only pure Grass in Rainbow Cup with a Poison charge move, and a good one at that in Sludge Bomb. Unfortunately, with Razor Leaf it won't get to Bomb often, and that is really its only useable charge move (Petal Blizzard and Solar Beam are both way too slow for Razor Leafers, which is why I haven't really mentioned them since the table above), so after those "huh, that's kinda neat" facts I started with, Sunflora doesn't have much else going for it. It beats what the above options beat, and loses to what they lose to without much varience other than that Quagsire distinction. You can use it, but it's a touch worse than Victreebel and Bellossom overall.
Victreebel's pre-evolution Weepinbell requires a Legacy version, as it cannot currently learn Razor Leaf anymore. But if you have a RL Weeper, it has the highest Attack stat of these Razor Leafers, and decent HP, but the most pitiful Defense of the lot as well. (There's ALWAYS a trade off for high Attack in Great League!) It has arguably the best charge moves (at least in a vacuum) of the bunch, with Seed Bomb being nearly as fast to fire as Leaf Blade (just one Razor Leaf difference) and Sludge Bomb again making an appearance. Those moves are so good that another good move, Power Whip (remember that from Ivysaur?) doesn't make the cut. And unfortunately, neither does Weepinbell, with a slightly weaker spread across the field than any of the options above. It DOES at least share the distinction (with Vic) of being able to outrace both Quagsire and Lanturn to their first charge move. So that's something, right?
Undoubtedly the most unique 'mon on this entire list is Bayleef. Its low Attack (108) is pretty underpowered compared to the others, and thus it can't outrace much of anything with its comparatively weak Razor Leaf spam. Despite that, it actually has one of the highest win percentages of the Leafers, partly because it has the best bulk of them all and partly because of the move that makes it really unique: Ancient Power. This means that it is the only Razor Leafer with any prayer of out-slugging Fire types. Bayleef is actually capable of outright defeating the meta Fire types and even some of the Bug types that no other Razor Leafer can, including Charizard, Ninetails, and Venomoth... with the critical qualifier that it can only do so if Ancient Power goes through unshielded (probably not a surprise, but uh...yeah). It also has the distinction of being able to tie or beat BOTH major Confusioners, Slowbro and Exeggutor. If you have a Bayleef, these things give it a legitimate leg up against unprepared (and even some prepared!) opponents that the other Leafers cannot match, but there's a tradeoff. The others listed can all be caught at the right size for Great League use (even Weepinbell and Gloom, as pre-evolutions, can be caught or evolved up to around 1500 CP at or around Level 35), whereas Bayleef really needs to be maxed out (and even then, a perfect one tops out at 1454). He's a unique and powerful option, but he is not for the thrifty.
So, let's get to the TL;DR summary. A strong Razor Leafer can ratchet up the pressure like not even the mighty Venusaur can. It should not replace Venusaur, who is a force of awesome destruction in Rainbow Cup, but if you want to run two Grasses and terrify anyone running several Waters (and/or make Quagsire soil himself), having both Venu AND a Leafer in your six can spook novice and experienced players alike. The unprepared will wilt under Razor Leaf before they have proper time to switch out, and even the experienced are likely to give the double Grass presence a wide berth with their team-of-three choices. If you don't have Venusaur, running a potent Razor Leafer as your only Grass IS a little riskier, putting you at a disadvantage against Fires and Bugs that Venusaur's speed can sometimes make up for, but it can also absolutely steamroll Water-heavy teams. (And with many teams trending towards carrying three, four, or even MORE Water types, there are some juicy target out there!) My personal recommendation is Victreebel, with the best mix of Attack high enough to beat down several very relevant 'mons with fast moves alone and charge moves that you can realistically expect to fire off (sometimes more than once, which is not often true of Razor Leafers!). If you're terrified of Confusioners, Bellossom may be a better bet due to typing, or Bayleaf if you have the dust to max it out. The others listed are all viable as well, but these three are overall the best of the bunch.
As always, the sims above from the wonderful PvPoke.com are a good start to the story, but this is still certainly not the whole story. Sim with these yourself, test with them yourself, and please: discuss! I'd love to hear your feedback.
Thanks for reading, and good luck striking fear into the heart of Waters everywhere!
EDIT: Formatting goofs.
submitted by JRE47 to TheSilphArena [link] [comments]

Under The Lights: Razor Leafers (Jungle Cup)

Comin' at ya!
So in addition to my Nifty Or Thrifty article each month, I spend the time between NoT articles with some deeper examinations of Pokémon in the current Cup that I think may deserve a little more attention, ones that might have breakout potential. My last couple articles happen to have covered repeats from the past, takin a second look at Beedrill and Heracross. So I guess third time's the charm, as today we are rehashing a whole group of old AND some new 'mons, putting them all...under the lights.
Just as it was in Rainbow Cup, when I wrote a very similar article on Razor Leafers, Grass as a type in Jungle Cup is highlighted by Frenzy Plant. The first of the busted Community Day starter moves (back from just the second Community Day ever), Frenzy Plant deals a ridiculous 100 damage for only 45 energy, the second highest Damage Per Energy (DPE) available in the game. The two most common users of it (we're ignoring Sceptile, since Frenzy Plant is only its third--maybe even fourth now--best move) also both have Vine Whip, an true fast move that generates energy quickly (4.0 Energy Per Turn (EPT)) with only slightly below average Damage Per Turn (DPT) at 2.5 (3.0 is generally considered average). It is this moveset combination, along with a good secondary move in Sludge Bomb, that has put Venusaur as the reigning Grass king in two straight Cups now. He is the Grass to beat, able to best Vigoroth, Wigglytuff, (nearly) all Electrics, AND most of the other Grasses.
That all being said... this article is NOT about Venusaur. Or Frenzy Plant. Or even Vine Whip. This is instead about the primary alterative and perhaps more infamous Grass strategy, and the main candidates that fall into that camp. I'm talking (again) about the Razor Leafers.
Razor Leaf is the other Grass fast move useful in PvP other than Vine Whip. (No, don't talk to me about Bullet Seed. It doesn't count. It's horrid... really.) Unlike the high energy but so-so damage output of Whip, Razor Leaf is used to just shred things up without even needing charge moves. It has the highest DPT in the game (a whopping 5.5 DPT, a full point and a half above everything not named Charm... and yes, still higher than Charm too), though at the cost of low EPT (only 2.0, a snail's pace). But that's okay, because when done right, Razor Leaf can take down its targets, on its own, sometimes before any charge moves are ready to launch. (More on that shortly.) Even if it doesn't manage to beat out charge move use, Razor Leafers can often obliterate things weak to Grass--or even NOT weak to Grass!--with only fast moves, taking the opponent's shields out of the equation, or at worst, absolutely ensuring they have to burn one just to survive the fast move onslaught.
But this is more than just a specific move analysis. As you probably know by now, my articles (and the Under The Lights features especially) focus on very specific Pokémon. So let's do that! Here are the most relevant Jungle Cup Pokémon that have access to the powerful Razor Leaf, brought to you in high definition tableized format. Feast your eyes!
(Razor Leaf as a Legacy move marked with an ᴸ)
Pokémon Type(s) GL Attack GL Defense GL HP Recommended Charge Moves (Typing) Other Charge Moves (Typing)
Victreebel Grass/Poison 136 97 124 Leaf Blade (G), Sludge Bomb (P) Acid Spray (P), Leaf Tornado (G), Solar Beam (G)
Weepinbell Grass/Poison 143 80 136 Seed Bomb (G), Sludge Bomb (P) Power Whip (G)
Bellossom Grass 114 134 130 Leaf Blade (G), Dazzling Gleam (F) Petal Blizzard (G)
Vileplume Grass/Poison 127 114 122 Sludge Bomb (P), Moonblast (F) Petal Blizzard (G), Solar Beam (G)
Gloom Grass/Poison 121 117 133 Sludge Bomb (P), Moonblast (F) Petal Blizzard (G)
Roserade Grass/Poison 143 111 97 Grass Knot (G), Sludge Bomb (P) Dazzling Gleam (F), Solar Beam (G)
Roselia Grass/Poison 139 106 108 Sludge Bomb (P), Dazzling Gleam (F) Petal Blizzard (G)
Torterra Grass/Ground 121 116 131 Stone Edge (R), Earthquake (G) Solar Beam (G)
Grotle Grass 119 108 146 Body Slam (N), Energy Ball (G) Solar Beam (G)
Bayleef Grass 108 134 134 Grass Knot (G), Ancient Power (R) Energy Ball (G)
Ludicolo WateGrass 118 123 131 Ice Beam (I), Hydro Pump (W) Blizzard (I), Solar Beam (G)
First let's quick discuss what's NOT listed: the Vine Whippers. My reasoning is simple and the same as last time: running Razor Leaf on Venusaur, Meganium, and even Ivysaur is, in own opinion, a waste of potential. Remember that Vine Whip generates energy literally twice as fast as Razor Leaf, and with those three, you want to fire off as many of their potent charge moves as possible. (Ivy lacks Frenzy Plant, but Power Whip is a close approximation.) The Grass charge moves are important, but their secondary moves are just as (if not even more) important for critical coverage. The 'Saurs NEED Sludge Bomb as a legit threat to Bugs and Flyers that can otherwise check them completely unfettered, and to have a leg up against opposing Grasses. Meganium NEEDS Earthquake--which already feels slow even with Whip's high EPT--for similar reasons. They'll never get there with Razor Leaf, and the opponent will know it. Yes, Razor Leaf will deal much bigger neutral damage than Vine Whip in some bad matchups, but all important versatility and shield pressure will be gone. One particularly damning example is Venusaur versus Vigoroth... Venusaur wins the 0 shield with Vine Whip but with Razor Leaf, Viggy has time to get in TWO Body Slams before Venusaur gets to a charge move and Venusaur loses. Don't do it... especially since there are plenty of other powerful Razor Leafers to choose from.
A note before we dive fully into the various options. Looking at the chart above, you'll notice that the majority of true Razor Leafers are on the glassy side with high Attack but below average (or downright poor) Defense, HP, or both. Normally, that's not a good thing in PvP, as high Attack stats mean higher CP and lower overall Defense and/or HP. However, with a move like Razor Leaf, where you want to deal as much raw damage as possible with each hit, this is the rare exception to the rule. As one example, Victreebel can kill Alolan Graveler before it reaches a charge move with just Razor Leaf while, for example, Bayleef cannot. Or as an extreme example, an Attack-maximized Weepinbell (with a whopping 147 Attack) can kill Lanturn with just Razor Leaf before it can reach a Thunderbolt. I am not necessarily advocating you look for a 15 Attack IV Razor Leafer to throw out there (as it will be even glassier than normal that way)... I'm more trying to say that an Attack-heavy Razor Leafer is not necessarily a bad thing in PvP.
And that also highlights the advantage they have other the Vine Whippers. When Grass damage is super effective, a Razor Leafer will often outperform even the potent Vine Whip/Frenzy Plant combo. Take the A-Grav example again. While most RLers can dust it off without any charge moves coming into play, Venusaur wins but with only about half the HP of the typical Razor Leafer (Vic comes out with 60 HP, for reference), and while it forces Grav to burn a shield, it ALSO has to use a shield itself to survive. As another example, the majority of Razor Leafers beat Magnezone even though Razor Leaf is resisted, because even when 'not very effective', RL is such a powerful move that it still deals decent damage with each hit. Victreebel, for example, wins because no matter when 'Zone chooses to use its first charge move (even if it uses it the second it is first available), Vic beats down 'Zone JUST before it get enough energy to fire the Flash Cannon it would need to win... the same Flash Cannon that CAN take out Venusaur.
And as you might have gathered by how I keep using it as an example, I think the most well-rounded Razor Leafer continues to be Victreebel. Vic started to make a name for itself in the closing days of Twilight Cup as a hard check to Azumarill and Tentacruel and the Nidos that could also shred a number of other meta picks that took neutral damage from the then-recently-buffed Razor Leaf. Even then, Venusaur with Frenzy Plant was king, but the sheer speed at which Razor Leaf took things down got Vic some play. And you know what? I think it is still the best Razor Leaf option available in any Cup that doesn't include Tropius... like Rainbow (where it had great success, especially with Quag running amok) and now here in Jungle. Like other Razor Leafers, Vic is best when able to just spam fast moves to victory. Razor Leaf alone is enough to beat every Electric in Jungle (except that pesky flying Zapdos) AND defeat the big "Normal" threats Vigoroth and Wigglytuff (the latter before it can fire a charge move), the two main marks of success for a Grass in Jungle Cup. But Victreebel's main advantage is its charge moves. Leaf Blade is the best possible move to pair with Razor Leaf, needing only 35 energy to fire off an impressive 70 damage. Even with slow charging Razor Leaf, that's only nine seconds on average... slow, but not TOO slow. It is all but guaranteed to be ready to fire on the next 'mon to follow whatever you just killed off with Razor Leaf, and 70 damage (with STAB on top of it) hurts even when resisted. You can get to a Leaf Tornado for only one more Razor Leaf, but my personal recommendation is to add Sludge Bomb as the second move--even though it requires a total of a painfully slow thirteen Razor Leafs--to give it the same versatile threat as Venusaur. With Vic having more than enough energy for it (it requires 50) after taking down VigWig or most of the Electrics, it's also a good case for using just Razor Leaf to finish something off and then dropping a Bomb on he followup 'mon. You could also argue for Acid Spray--with the same cost as Bomb--as a "parting gift" before Vic bites the dust, but in my opinion, when you're using a Razor Leafer, the name of the game is damage damage damage, so for me it's Leaf Blade/Sludge Bomb. Vic is unique among RLers in having Spray (and Tornado!) though, so if messing with the opponent's stats and weakening their Pokémon is your game, go for it.
The same is mostly true of the rest of the Razor Leafers, with some key differences I will attempt to cover briefly.
Victreebel's pre-evolution Weepinbell requires a Legacy version, as it cannot currently learn Razor Leaf anymore. But if you have a RL Weeper, it has the highest Attack stat of these Razor Leafers (tied with Roserade), and decent HP, but the most pitiful Defense of the lot. (There's ALWAYS a trade off for high Attack in Great League!) It has some of the best charge moves of the bunch, with Seed Bomb being nearly as fast to fire as Leaf Blade (just one Razor Leaf difference) and Sludge Bomb again making an appearance. Those moves are so good that another good move, Power Whip (remember that from Ivysaur?) doesn't even make the cut. It performs similarly to Victreebel... in fact, a deeper dive revealed that they seem to share all the same wins and losses against meta relevant Pokémon. Weeper is more boom or bust than Vic, sometimes emerging from those wins with a LOT more HP (Magnezone, for example, where Vic, if you remember from above, emerges with 15 HP but Weeper comes out with over five times more HP because its more powerful Leafs kill Magnezone before it can reach a second charge move). Conversely, there are other important battles where the low bulk really costs it, such as versus Vigoroth (Weeper JUST barely escapes with a win, as opposed to Vic's more comfortable margin). The Defense is a direct factor, as each Counter and charge move does more damage to Weeper than Vic due to the difference in Defense and overall bulk. So like I said, Victreebel with more boom AND bust potential.
Bellossom is a close comp to Victreebel, having the same RazorBlade (haha I just as funny as last month) move combo as Vic. It also has Dazzling Gleam, which would be more intriguing if A.) it didn't cost a whopping 70 energy to fire, so you won't be getting to it often (if at all), and B.) Fairy had more than just two super effective targets (in Jungle, it's basically just Fighting types Heracross and Breloom... the small handful of eligible Darks and single Dragon type are nowhere to be seen). As it is, you will almost certainly end up using only Leaf Blade as the charge move, which is far from a bad thing. (It would be perfectly valid, if you're feeling thrifty, to not add a second move at all.) But the key distinction between Bell and Vic is the typing. Bellossom is pure Grass, and without Vic's Poison subtyping, it gets hit a LOT harder by anything with Poison moves, aka many other Grasses and also Bugs like Beedrill, who are all on the rise to combat Wigglytuff. And without the Poison subtyping, it is ALSO now weak to Wigglytuff itself, falling to the pink bunny monster's Charm. (Yes, it burns a shield, but that's a pretty common tale for Wiggly, as it is turning out.) And it cannot typically beat Wiggly with just Razor Leaf, either. Bummer. In Rainbow Cup, this was counterbalanced by pure Grasses not being weak to Confusion and Psychic attacks that ripped up the Poison/Grasses... Exeggutocute and Slowbro/poke were prevelant, making that a very real advantage. But here in the Jungle, Exeggutor has mostly faded away, Girafarig is more punchline than actual threat, and really only the Moths (Venomoth and Dustox) are still in as Confusioners, and with their Bug and Poison moves, they beat down all the Grasses anyway, regardless of whether they're part Poison or not. Pure Grasses had their use in Rainbow, but here in the Jungle, it's almost entirely a disadvantage.
One of the benefactors of the move shakeup last week was Vileplume, who finally got a charge move with a cost low enough to actually, realistically reach it with Razor Leaf, and it's a good move too! Sludge Bomb brings Plume into relevance among the RLers... previously its fastest move was Petal Blizzard, which cost 65 energy and was underwhelming anyway. In fact, if you purchase a second move at all, I actually recommend one that costs even MORE energy: Moonblast, at 70 energy. You may not reach it often, but at least it has some different coverage and is neutral in most spots where Grass moves are ineffective. (Really, though, this is a case where you could easily get by with just one charge move and pocket that 50k dust instead.) Vileplume's win rate is similar to Victreebel, and yes, it beats all the same Electrics (and Vigoroth and Wiggly, JUST outracing the latter to its first charge) that you'd expect of your typical Razor Leafer. With bulk advantages over Vic/Weeper and the typing advantage over Bellossom, it's actually a pretty strong contender now as long as you don't care too much about Leaf Blade.
Again, the pre-evolution is a viable option as well. Gloom has the same moves as Vileplume with a bit less Attack but greater bulk (not surprising since it is leveled up higher). It still beats VigWig and the same Electric lineup you're used to by now, but with a curious twist: with its increased bulk, it can actually outlast Zapdos (who beats all the other Razor Leafers we've covered so far), taking a Drill Peck to the chin and finishing Zappy off with ineffective Razor Leafs. Mighty impressive. A point to bulk (and Gryffindor!). I have advocated Gloom as the thrifty (read as: dust broke) player's Razor Leafer of choice for several Cups now, and that continues here.
The first ones on the list that we couldn't use in Rainbow Cup are Roserade and Roselia, who I will cover together because of their strong similarities and similar moves. (And because I am aware I may bump up against TSA's character limit at this rate!) Both have top-notch Attack prowess but very poor bulk, making them as glassy as Weepinbell above and again true boom or bust options. Roserade has the move advantage (Grass Knot is a good move with the same charge time as Sludge Bomb), Roselia slightly less wretched bulk, but with Sludge Bomb, they both function basically the same way as Razor Leafers. And yes, both beat all non-Flying Electrics, VigWig, etc. that you've come to expect. What sets them apart a bit is that they are the best at operating as NON-Razor Leafers. Most Pokémon in this article have the very bad alternate fast move Acid, which overall functions similarly to Razor Leaf against things weak to Poison (like Wiggly), but significantly worse against everything else, and the energy generation is only marginally (0.5 EPT) better at the cost of dealing barely half the damage of RL. Hard pass. (Most of the other options below aren't much better, as we'll see.) Roserade/lia, however, have Poison Jab, a very good move (3 DPT and 3.5 EPT), and while it doesn't look like a great win rate on paper, what it does is turn them into Grass killers able to defeat most of its fellow Razor Leafers and even Venusaur. (Despite the lack of a good Grass move, Roselia is generally a little better in this curveball role than Roserade due to the bulk difference.) And while this also still works against Wigglytuff, it gives up sure wins versus Vigoroth and many of the Electrics to do it. Proooooooobably not worth it, but if for some reason you expect a Grass-heavy meta, I suppose it IS an option. (And considering how much better PJ is than Acid, hopefully this is enough to convince you NOT to try Acid at all... in ANY form! Ahem....)
One last starter family to cover, starting with end-of-the-evolutionary-line Torterra. With charge moves Stone Edge and Earthquake, and a unique Ground sub-typing (TRIPLE resistance to Electrics, baby!), Torterror certainly stands out on this list. And while it not surprisingly beats down Electrics the hardest (ALL of them, including Zapdos), unfortunately its win rate takes a dip elsewhere. Primarily this is driven by having a subpar, Gloom-like Attack stat without having Gloom-level bulk to compensate. Its win against Vigoroth is very uncomfortably close and unlike all the other options above, it cannot reliably beat Wigglytuff (it's a tie instead). It CAN put the hurt on Flyers if it lands a Stone Edge, but that's not something you necessarily want to bank on. I still think Torterra will shine in a Cup one of these days (maybe after its future Community Day?), but for now, it's just too slow--even among other Razor Leafers--with its weaker fast moves.
However, its pre-evolution Grotle has popped up at a few tournaments so far, including on the winning team in a 200+ player tournament in Chile as their only Grass type. Like most of the others here, Grotle beats the Electrics and Viggy, but like Torterra, only ties Wiggly. But what really makes it appealing (and is likely the main reason it has been popping up a few places) is that it has Vigoroth's bread and butter charge move Body Slam. With slow Razor Leaf charging it, obviously it's not nearly as spammy as usual, but it does charge at the same rate as Leaf Blade and while it's a little less powerful and won't ever hit super effectively, it also only very rarely hits ineffectively either. You can add Energy Ball or even Solar Beam as "why not? it's only 10k dust" second moves, but if you're playing Grotle, it's all about that Body Slam. It does have a respectable win rate, though I'm not sure if it will continue to take people by surprise for long as news of its successes keeps popping up here and there. And now that I've written about it. Ummm... oops.
Last among the starters is Bayleef, another unique option that I talked up a little back during the GO Stadium Jungle Cup Meta Discussion... so I feel obligated to give it some time here. Bayleef's low Attack (108) is very underpowered compared to the others, and thus it can't outrace much of anything with its comparatively weak Razor Leaf spam. Despite that, its win rate is still very comparable to the other Leafers, partly because it has the best overall bulk and partly because of the move that makes it really unique: Ancient Power. Bayleef still beats all Electrics (besides Zapdos, though it can also absorb a Drill Peck and if it lands an Ancient Power, it wins outright), still beats Vigoroth, still (barely) beats Wiggly. But Ancient Power is the real advantage, giving it an ability to punish Flyers and Bugs that is nearly unheard of with other Razor Leafers (or Grasses in general). Yes, we just talked about Torterror with Stone Edge, but AP charges two Razor Leafs faster and has a potential stat boost as well, giving it far superior potential. If you can get an AP through unshielded, Bayleef can outslug Venomoth, Pidgeot, Masquerain, and even the bulky Queen of Grassassins Vespiquen. No Grass has any business doing any of that, but Bayleef, quite uniquely, can, giving it a legitimate leg up against unprepared (and even some prepared!) opponents... but there's a tradeoff. The others listed can all be caught at the right size for Great League use (even Weepinbell and Gloom, as pre-evolutions, can be caught or evolved up to around 1500 CP at or around Level 35), whereas Bayleef really needs to be maxed out (and even then, a perfect one tops out at 1454). He's a unique and powerful option, but he is not for the thrifty.
And finally, the oddest of the oddballs, the most unique Pokémon on this entire list, the fan favorite... Ludicolo! With a Water sub-typing, you would expect him to lose to Electrics, but that is generally not true... Ludicolo still beats them all except for a razor (leaf) close loss to Magnezone and--you guessed it!--Zapdos again. And yes, Ludicolo does defeat Vigoroth and ties Wigglytuff. And just as Bayleef and even Torterra can steal a win from Flyers and Bugs with their Rock moves, Ludicolo has the potential to do the same against Flyers and Grasses with Ice Beam, which is really the only charge move you need (and likely the only one you'll ever reach anyway). It does 80-100+ damage to all Flyers (Normal, Bug, and Electric alike) and can be a very nasty surprise to any of them the opponent sends in to try and take Ludicolo out. This is not its most ideal Cup (it probably needs a Cup with Water and not specifically including other Grass to reach its awesome, Camerupt-esque potential), but Ludicolo is always a fun option to consider, and this is the first chance we'd had to use him, so if you've been itching to roll him out there, at least now you know what to expect (beyond his sweet dance moves). LUDICOLO!
Okay, let's get to the TL;DR summary before I COMPLETELY blow past the character limit. A strong Razor Leafer can ratchet up the pressure akin to even the mighty Venusaur. The unprepared can wilt under Razor Leafs before they have proper time to switch out, and even the experienced are likely to give Razor Leaf the respect it deserves. That damage adds up quick! If you don't have Venusaur, running a potent Razor Leafer as your only Grass IS a little riskier, putting you at a disadvantage against Bugs and Flyers that Venusaur's speed (and Sludge Bombs!) can sometimes make up for, but it can also defeat a wide swath of very relevant things in the Jungle. My personal recommendation continues to be Victreebel, with the best mix of Attack high enough to beat down several very relevant 'mons with fast moves alone and charge moves that you can realistically expect to fire off (sometimes more than once, which is not often true of Razor Leafers!). But hopefully this article has given you a good perspective on the intricacies of your various options and can help you decide what is best for YOUR team. Good luck!
As always, the sims above from the wonderful PvPoke.com are a good start to the story, but this is still certainly not the whole story. Sim with these yourself, test with them yourself, and please: discuss! I always relish your feedback.
Good luck out there. Take some razors with you to hack through all those leaves (and Electrics... and apes... and pink... bunny... uh, things) in the Jungle!
P.S. - LUDICOLO!
submitted by JRE47 to TheSilphArena [link] [comments]

State Monopolies and The Investor

I’ve railed at various times about the creation of State Monopolies to distribute cannabis.
I’ve experience with them in my professional life - notably power, and interacting within the booze regime in Alberta, where I’d acquired an importation license to import tequila and craft beer from the states.
It seems the right to put all of it in one place, and explain why these Zombies of the State are an anachronism in the 21st century: utterly vulgar for consumers, businesses, investors, and ultimately......the citizen.
When the pure, naked, and bottomless greed of governments across the country rolled cannabis into their purview, I wrote a couple of nastygrams to my elected representatives. And with utter predictability - I got nothing but condescending palp in response. Not once did they attempt to address my concerns.
We’ve got a real life examples of outcomes in the superior customer service yous gettins from Ontario Cannabis Storage.
Fed up? Want to take your business elsewhere?
You’re fucked. And they have the stones to be angry about the fact you’re angry. Don’t you know they’re doing their best? You ungrateful slob. Besides, they were lied to by the criminal elements.
Here's my concerns about State Monopolies inserting themselves into peoples lives.
State Monopolies create economic distortions
Price Controls have been around for millennia. And they’ve been useless since the first Roman Emperor tried ‘em.
Centrally planned economies have been largely phased out of existence, as people will simply act in their own best interests. If they find a price too high, they seek alternatives. And having a nation state setting prices simply fucks up the economy (see Marxism & Maoism for how this sort of thing turns out).
The feds ‘discovered’ this distortion when ramping taxes on cigarettes, effectively setting a floor price for tobacco. At a certain level of taxation, people avoid the system entirely.
While tobacco companies complained about lax enforcement, it’s easy to pick on tobacco btw, and their complaints were largely ignored. That they don’t have many allies anywhere didn’t help.
But it was found that the propagation of illegal smokes - smuggled in, avoiding excise taxes - went big when the price per package went above a certain level ($15). The federal government backed off and lowered taxes to try and capture the tax leakage they saw.
State Monopolies institutionalize inefficiency
People organize their affairs as they see fit. Some are willing to pay for a premium product. Some are fine with a no-name for less cost.
What governs the allocation of resources in the economy is efficiency. Production levels correspond to demand, and those companies that deliver a product within a price range sell stuff. Those who produce this given product - but for much higher cost than competitors - will not sell their goods.
In the case of State Monopolies: ‘it costs what it costs’. There is no mechanism to react to changes in the market, and adds a fixed component that lives independently of consumer choice, and it’s value within it.
Given that LP’s have been selling to consumers directly for years - tell me why physical handling is required - where an LP must ship from it’s loading dock to a State Warehouse - where it is unpacked - and shipped back to an LP’s store for resale. Think about that.
Manitoba isn’t building a warehouse. Why would they? All they need to do is track and measure their take. Anything beyond that is pure waste.
Harberger's triangle describes this well with respect to taxes. But even with taxes aside, the cost of the monopoly itself is simply dead weight burden to society.
And price discrimination is emergent in jurisdictions - across the value chain. We see this in differentials between medical and recreational cannabis, as well as in wholesale and retail margins across the country.
Need something a little less esoteric? How about…….
State Monopolies mute the price signal
The price signal is the only thing we have to determine scarcity. Typically, more scarce = higher cost. Because that’s the signal to the individual about availability, producers to increase or decrease production, and for the whole lot of them to decide how to allocate capital.
You know…to actually make purchasing decisions with their own money.
Monopolies install cost that has zero value add.
The Reactive Nature of Regulation
Regulatory is reactive. Some undesirable activity is taking place. Regulators move to stop it.
Regulatory thought in the early ’90s was to establish some guard rails, and get out of the fucking way. A ‘light touch’ as it were.
Sadly this didn’t last long. Bureaucratic empires can’t get built with that kind of thinking, and as is extremely well known in politics: a politician without a budget is nothing.
But, but…..you say….the free market needs regulation molly. Really. The capitalists will pillage the village and make servants of us all in the absence of regulation.
Of course I agree.
The rule of law needs laws to be ruled by. And, there are some very bad actors out there in the world. Natch. Hence why there is prisons.
But the debacle of the global financial crisis in 2008 showed us the folly of the tautology that regulation keeps bad things in check.
You remember the crisis right? The one where banks were selling bags of dogshit to each other, adding more dogshit to the bag with every transaction?
There were 16 governmental agencies with some 30,000+ employees responsible for regulating the North American financial sector. And they were as culpable and as complicit as the people trading the bags of dogshit. If you disagree with that - and at the very least - we can say there was regulatory failure, and policy failure.
And there is no cost to them for either. There’s now 47,000 of them.
This isn’t a an inverted paean about regulation. Only a statement that regulatory needs to be crisp, effective, and as efficient as possible.
State Monopolies obscure and distort markets - adding to regulatory burden to mitigate the distortions. Which complicates incremental regulations, leading to regulations metastasizing, and unbounded cost expansion.
The Experience in Power
Much of my view comes from watching the interplay of regulators with local monopolies and power providers.
They are all camps armed with lawyers, who conduct their wars in the battlefield of the courts. With costs ultimately landing on the ratepayer.
Inefficiency abounds. I could provide examples for days. But since rant will take days (kinda like this one), take my word for it.
Or google “electricity regulation and inefficiency” if you’ve got a decade or so.
Alrighty then molly. So you’re pissed off. Surely there’s a need for State Monopolies. You want to privatize the Air Force dickhead?
No, I don’t. And there is good reason for State Monopolies. And it’s easily defined. It’s also the sole reason for them to exist.
Provision of Public Goods
A public good is something that makes sense to monopolize. Think of electricity transmission. If there were multiple suppliers each needing their own wires to your home, you’d never be able to see the sky but for wires in your back yard. The police, firefighters, land for public parks. You get the idea.
A natural monopoly occurs when there is benefit (or cost) to society - but the cost (or benefit) is attributable to no specific individual.
Try to put together an argument that cannabis is a public good. Or that State Monopolies are a good idea in any private sector product provision for that matter.
If you’ve lasted this long: Congratulations. And I hope you’re as pissed off as myself at the farce of State Monopolies muscling in on private business.
But TheCannalysts are a group that provides investor education and analysis and such on an industry. So….I’ve left the single best and most compelling reason why investors should loathe State Monopolies for last:
State Monopolies create winners, and losers
Nifty little craft outfit somewhere that you’ve heard about somewhere? Want to try a novel strain you’ve heard some trusted friends tell you about? Uh oh. Unless it’s listed by the State Monopoly in your province - not a chance bub.
Unless you have some smuggled (mailed or driven) by a person from another province of course - who also would be breaking the law by sending it to you. But only after purchasing it from their own State Monopoly.
Small business is at a natural disadvantage by not having the resources to negotiate with 13 State Monopolies - who have minimum supply requirements, different logistical demands, and probably different packaging standards emerge over time. LP’s need supply deals - rather than putting product into stores that deal with supply demand every single purchase.
For a store desiring to open for niche products or suppliers - they have to compete with other stores to buy product - rather than negotiate directly. the State Monopoly owns the listings, and owns the right to say who goes where.
BC is actually coming out on the shortest end of the stick here because they have a robust and varied market to begin with. And there is no way state monopolies will carry 30,000 SKUs (at least for a decade). Indeed, there is no reason for them to carry a single one.
They do not have to warehouse. They do not have to confiscate online sales. They do not have to block entrepreneurs and deny people with dreams of business ownership from being able to open a store.
It is a vulgar expression of the power of the State - and contrary to the very essence of freedom of choice, and freedom of actions around a legal product in a free society.
Tax something to reflect societal harm? Ok. Regulate for reasons of public safety? Fine. Put in controls to track supply chain and quality? Hip.
But tell me who an adult of legal age can purchase a legal product from, and which legal supplier I choose to give my money to?
Fuck off. And get the fuck out of my wallet while you’re at it.
submitted by mollytime to TheCannalysts [link] [comments]

Offseason Review Series Day 21: The Tennessee Titans

Hub Link

 

Tennessee Titans

Division: AFC South

2017 Record: 9-7

2017 Div. Rank: 2nd

 

Coaching Changes

Vrabel Bodied Men

Out with the old and in with the new, both figuratively and literally. The Exotic Smashmouth era has screeched to a halt and the Titans have entered a new age. A more modern age. Coverage Consistency with Front Multiplicity. It sounds smarter and sexier, but idk.
 
Mike Mularkey and his crew of stubborn, old, washed up coaches are out. Mike Vrabel and his youthful band of brothers have arrived.
 
“But Dean Pees isn’t young. What are you, some kind of idiot?”
 
Yeah, Pees is no spring chicken at 68. But he’s still 12 years younger than our last DC. I respect what ‘grand-dad Dick” LeBeau accomplished in Tennessee, but it was time for him to hang it up.
 
Mularkey deserves credit for his role in righting Tennessee’s ship. Ol’ Smashmouth came in as interim HC and promised acting owner Amy Adams Strunk that he would protect Marcus above all else. He won only 2 of 9 in his half season as interim, but churned out back-to-back 9-7 seasons in the next two. Last season, he led the Titans to their first playoff appearance since 2008 and their first playoff victory since 2003. And he got fired anyway. Because he’s bad. Or, better yet, he was unlikely to get any better. He refused to adapt.
 
Terry Robiskie, his offensive coordinator, suffered from early-onset dementia (citation needed). They were all utterly inflexible in their approach to game planning and play calling. It was going to work, damn it – those players just needed to execute. The coaches wouldn’t budge. Mike wouldn’t fire his staff to replace them with better candidates. He picked his hill, and he died on it.
 
Enter Mike Vrabel, a fiery, young gun. 42 years old. Here’s a guy who played the game at its highest levels; he’s won Super Bowls and been voted to Pro Bowls by his peers. His standard of excellence is unmatched, presumably. In fact, we don’t know much about Mike #3 as a head coach. He’s never done that. Vrabel has been coached by great coaches. He’s coached with great coaches. But he’s never been a head coach, only an assistant.
 
Last season as defensive coordinator of the Texans, his defense was ranked 32nd. Do you know how many teams are in the league? The ’17 Texans certainly suffered some key injuries on defense, but hiring Vrabel – a guy with zero HC experience – was a massive risk on the part of Titans ownership and the front office. He’s a completely unknown commodity outside of his pedigree. How many coaches with great pedigrees have fallen flat on their faces? More than we can count. At least his last name is fresh and he’s not afraid to take risks of his own. The Titans need to take more risks as a franchise.
 
Vrabel’s OC, Matt LaFleur, is another guy we interviewed for the vacant HC spot this offseason. He’s a part of that hip Kyle Shanahan, a la Mike Shanahan coaching tree. In 2012, he was the QB coach for the Redskins and was a mentor to both Robert Griffin III and Kirk Cousins. He was Matt Ryan’s QB coach under OC Kyle Shanahan in 2016, the year Ryan was named league MVP. When Shanahan left for the 49ers in 2017, the Falcons chose to let LaFleur walk instead of promoting him. LaFleur then took the Rams OC job under HC Sean McVay, another guy he worked with in Washington.
 
So, this was a lateral move for him with a single caveat – Tennessee would be his first job as the primary play caller. McVay handled the play calls on gameday in Los Angeles. Another element to consider, he and Vrabel have zero history. Will they develop the rapport needed to stay on the same page each week? How will their relationship with Mariota develop? Will his version of the Shanahan/McVay offense be as effective? LaFleur is a bit of an unknown himself. What is known is that he’s been involved in some prolific offenses at almost every stop he’s made in the NFL. We’ll find out if he retained anything useful at those stops and if he can teach it on his own.
 
Dean Pees less of an unknown. Ask any Ravens fan, and they’ll bitch endlessly about him despite how well their defenses performed under his tutelage. He doesn’t have quite the lifetime resume that Dick LeBeau does, but he’s no slouch with two Super Bowl rings. Dean came out of a very brief retirement to work for Vrabel, whom he coached as the LB coach and DC in New England. Dean is inheriting a defense that boasts some dynamic playmakers that have loads of potential for growth. To help galvanize an already strong secondary, Vrabel stole premiere DB coach Kerry Coombs from his alma mater. Ohio State is a recent contender for the title of “DB-U” and that is due in part to his efforts. Some big questions need to be answered on the front seven and Malcolm Butler must show he’s worth his hefty price tag, but this could be Tennessee’s best defense in a decade.
 
The hire, so far, has received mostly positive reviews. Vrabel can ease many minds in Nashville if he and his assistants can field a top 10 defense in 2018. This staff must be more flexible and adaptable than the one that came before it.
 

Free Agency

Players lost/cut

Player Position New Team
Avery Williamson ILB Jets
Matt Cassel QB Lions
Sylvester Williams NT/DT Lions
Curtis Riley DB/ST Giants
Eric Decker WR Free Agent
Harry Douglas WR Free Agent
Brice McCain CB Free Agent
Brian Schwenke OG/OL Free Agent
Eric Weems WR Free Agent
Erik Walden OLB/DE Free Agent
Demarco Murray RB Retired
Karl Klug DL Retired

Cutting Losses

Williamson and Murray represent the two most significant offseason losses for the Titans in 2018. Out of all the players who will not return to the team, they produced the most in their roles, and it’s not even close. Williamson is a solid, two-down backer who improved his coverage skills in a contract year, but still wanted more than Tennessee thought he was worth. He’ll be a good get for the Jets, mostly in run support. Murray was a prime addition when the team needed it most. His productive 2016 campaign was the spark that ‘Ignited the Fire’ of this team’s resurgence. He wasn’t brought in to be a stop-gap, but that’s what he ultimately became due to injury, age, and thus, diminished value.
 
As you may have already noticed, there is a not-so-subtle motif in terms of the quality of player with which the Titans have parted ways. Only four out of the 12 Free Agents listed are with a new team. Of those four, just one is likely to be a starter. Generally, no other team views these players as must-have. And that’s a good sign for the growth of the Titans. We have freed up roster space to increase opportunities for new talent by ridding ourselves of known, unproductive, or simply average commodities.
 
All of this may seem like common sense to many fanbases in the league, but it’s relatively new for Titans fans. Tennessee frequently hung onto players who weren’t very good mostly because team depth was horrendous and the GM (Webster) was too proud to admit he spent a high draft pick or too much money on a turd. Those days are behind us. Third-year GM Jon Robinson has shown little hesitation to cut ties with players who don’t live up to expectations (ex. Decker, Williams) or those who have stopped producing (ex. Murray, Klug, Douglas, McCain).
 

Players signed

Free Agent Position Old Team Length Salary
Malcolm Butler CB Patriots 5 years $61.25MM
Dion Lewis HB Patriots 4 years $19.8MM
Blaine Gabbert QB Cardinals 2 years $4.0MM
Bennie Logan NT/DT Chiefs 1 year $4.0MM
Kevin Pamphile OG/OL Bucs 1 year $1.4MM
Will Compton ILB/ST Redskins 1 year $1.25MM
Xavier Su'a-Filo OG/OL Texans 1 year $880K
Michael Campanaro WKR Ravens 1 year $835K
Nick Williams WST Falcons 1 year $790K
Claude Pelon DL Jets N/A N/A

Iron Sharpens Iron

Malcolm Butler gets the marquee deal for Tennessee’s 2018 FA period. $61.25MM, $30MM guaranteed over five years is a big sum to shell out when your All-Pro LT and franchise QB are likely to set their respective markets in the next two off seasons. Butler better be worth the price tag. If he’s not, Tennessee can opt to cut him in 2021 (age 31) after only 3 years, $36.7MM and will leave behind only $4MM in dead cap. At any rate, on paper, Butler is one of the best FA additions we’ve made in years. That fact alone is a great sign that the Titans are truly turning the corner (pun). Premiere FAs actually want to come to Nashville again.
 
Dion Lewis is the second former Patriot lured away by Tennessee this offseason. Lewis offers quickness and agility this offense has lacked for some time. He will compliment Derrick Henry and the unique playstyle he offers, which we will touch on later. Lewis will be more than just the 3rd down, pass catching back in this offense. This tandem should be dynamic and heavily relied upon early in the season as the rest of the offense takes time to realize its full potential.
 
Blaine Gabbert is a major upgrade over Matt Cassell, and that says more about Cassell than Gabbert. Do you trust him to start half of your season or more? Think Michael Scott when he realizes Toby is back from Costa Rica. We know Gabbert can’t hack it as THE guy. But if he starts 4 games this year, can he manage to win 2 of them? Probably. Gabbert probably could have helped us win against Miami last year. Tennessee couldn’t trust Cassell to do any of that.
 
The remaining newcomers are competing for special teams and depth. Bennie Logan can play NT in both 3-4 and 4-3 fronts, but likely fares best in a 3-4. Su’a-Filo and Pamphile will have the chance to compete for Spain’s spot at LG and provide depth/utility at all 5 positions. Campanaro probably won’t see many snaps outside of special teams during the regular season, provided our somewhat shallow receiver group can stay healthy. Williams and Pelon may not even make the final 53.
 

Returning Players

Re-signing Position Length Salary
Josh Kline OG 4 years $26MM
DaQuan Jones DE/DL 3 years $21MM
Quinton Spain OG 1 year $1.9MM
 
Each of Tennessee’s three re-signings this offseason were key players. Spain is on a short-leash, but could earn a contract closer to Kline’s if he shows out in the new zone scheme. Jones suffered a biceps injury that sent him to IR late last year, but his disruptive 2017 performance prior to that earned him a big payday.
 

Draft

Round Pick Player Position School
1 22 Rashaan Evans ILB Alabama
2 41 Harold Landry OLB/EDGE Boston College
5 152 Dane Cruikshank DB Arizona
6 199 Luke Falk QB Washington St.

Fewer Picks, Less Margin for Error

Jon Robinson did his thing and traded away some assets to fill some critical gaps in Tennessee’s defense. The Titans only participated in 4 rounds of this year’s draft. Quality over quantity, right? The good news is that this made us an attractive landing spot for several intriguing UDFA’s, a group I will cover in the next section. Robinson targets tough, dependable football players that are also good teammates, and I think Tennessee got it right with all four selections. Let’s take a closer look at those picks and the grades I’m in no way qualified to give:

Grades

Round 1: Rashaan Evans, ILB, Alabama – B

We didn’t give up too much for Evans (Swapped firsts and gave BAL our 4th for their 6th), but he’s got some ticky tack question marks. How athletic is he, really? He skipped out on most combine drills and underwhelmed when he did participate. Is he durable? Will he be effective sideline-to-sideline in the NFL? I personally think he’ll translate. We know he had a great career at Alabama and it takes more than a good combine to be a star. This wasn’t exactly a ‘WOW’ pick, but he’s a versatile guy who can play inside and EDGE. Vrabes has already established that he likes guys who can do more than just one thing, so Evans fits that mold. He will be a three down backer. He knows how to win. He will keep his head down and go to work. Good move to fill a need with a day one starter.

Round 2: Harold Landry, OLB/EDGE, Boston College – A-

This was a big surprise, and I would call this a ‘WOW’ pick. Landry wasn’t supposed to fall to pick 41. He was said by many to be the best, pure pass rusher in this class. For this 16-spot climb, we gave up our 3rd rounder and swapped seconds with Oakland. But we landed an archetype of something we haven’t had in a long time. If he can stay healthy and live up to his 2016 hype, he will be well worth both picks. But that’s the reason he fell. The ankle injury and pedestrian 2017 stat line scared everyone away until we took our shot to move up to get him. Also, will he be able to do more than get after the QB? Can he be relied upon to cover on occassion? These are legitimate concerns, but his upside is worth every ounce of risk. I never truly understood the term ‘bend’ in relation to pass rushers until I watched Landry’s tape (full disclosure, I don’t watch much tape).

Round 3: Dane Cruikshank, S, Arizona – C+

For this pick, I was a little confused. We traded up 10 spots with Baltimore and gave them one of our two sixth round picks to nab a safety. We already have Kevin Byard at FS, and Cyprien at SS. Byard is a budding star and Cyp is under contract with us until 2020. Can he play cornerback? We don’t really need those either. JRob must see something in this guy that I don’t (no shit, I’m dumb). Like many, I had to google him when his name was called. Cruikshank is athletically gifted, to say the least. You might say he’s the opposite of Evans as a prospect. He didn’t have an outstanding college career, but he had an excellent combine. Early signs are that he’s a developmental guy. Shank can learn from veteran DBs and coaches on how to process the speed of the game and become a more cerebral player. His college tape shows plenty of examples of his athleticism. At 6’1, 209 lbs, here are his combine stats:
He’s an active tackler who isn’t allergic to contact. He will likely live on special teams this season and might play in some situational packages once he better grasps the playbook and scheme. Fortunately, he shouldn’t be rushed into a significant role barring any key injuries.

Round 6: Luke Falk, QB, Washington St. – B-

Tall. Accurate. Quick release. Big college numbers overall, including number of sacks taken. Could have durability issues, may see ghosts. System guy. Inconsistent arm strength. With (what you hope is) a franchise QB at the helm, you never want to see your 6th round QB take the field outside of the preseason or maybe when you’re resting your starters in week 17. This is a safe pick to make after signing Gabbert to a 2-year deal. Falk could very well develop into a high-end backup QB, but if he doesn’t, that’s ok. He won’t be in the spotlight. He can work with the scout team and draw a paycheck from the practice squad for a few years. He has time to blossom, which he needs. When Gabbert’s contract is up, we can let him walk and hang onto our homegrown guy if he works out. We all know that Mariota has missed games in his young career and if Falk can be a competent backup or better, then it’s a win.
 

Important Offseason News (Misc.)

Uniform Update

The much anticipated uniform reveal was a big hit in downtown Nashville. Say what you will about the night’s entertainment (FGL is bad), but the party on Broadway was a win for the fans, the team, and the city of Nashville. In fact, the reveal is said to have been a key part of the league’s decision to select our city to host the 2019 NFL Draft. Y’all are gonna have a blast down here with us.
 

Taylor Lewan Holdout

Lewan was present for OTAs, but then skipped out on mandatory minicamp. This sends a two part message; He wants to be in Nashville, but he’s also serious about getting an extension. While he is officially under contract with us through the end of 2018, this is a standard leverage move blah blah blah
He reported to camp with everyone else on Wednesday. No more hold out. The timeline on his extension will, ideally, mirror that of Jurrell Casey’s last offseason. Report to camp, start practice, and sign papers by the end of the month. Enjoy that sigh of relief, Nashville. Look for Lewan to set the market at LT.
 

Undrafed Free Agent Signings

It’s a big group. 25 guys total. Have a look:
Wadley, Burnett, Veasy, and Finch have created the most buzz so far and are the crème de la crème of a pretty robust UDFA class. The majority of these guys won’t make the final roster, but there’s always the chance that maybe one of them is a gem.
 

Kevin Dodd

The former second round pick and Clemson one-year wonder attended only the mandatory minicamp in June. He’s avoided telling the local media why he skipped OTAs despite some pretty aggressive attempts to pry it out of him. Something something he has a lot to prove now something something this is his last chance
Just kidding, he’s cut. He earned it, too. Dodd didn’t report on Sunday as required, per his injury status at the end of minicamp. No room for no shows. Adios, muchacho.
 
 

Projected Starting Lineup

QB: Marcus Mariota, #8
RB: Derrick Henry, #22; Dion Lewis, #33
FB: Luke Stocker, #88
TE: Delanie Walker, #82; Jonnu Smith, #81
WR: Corey Davis, #84; Rishard Matthews, #18; Taywan Taylor, #13, Tajae Sharpe, #19
LT: Taylor Lewan, #77
LG: Quinton Spain, #67
C: Ben Jones, #60
RG: Josh Kline, #64
RT: Dennis Kelly, #71 (Until Conklin returns - ACL); Jack Conklin, #78
DL: Jurrell Casey, #99, DaQuan Jones, #90, Austin Johnson, #94, Bennie Logan, #96
ILB: Wesley Woodyard, #59; Rashaan Evans, #54; Jayon Brown, #55; Will Compton, #51
OLB: Brian Orakpo, #98; Derrick Morgan, #91; Harold Landry, #58; Aaron Wallace, #52
CB: Malcolm Butler, #21; Adoree’ Jackson, #25, Logan Ryan, #26, LeShaun Sims, #36
S: Kevin Byard, #31; Johnathan Cyprien, #37
K: Ryan Succop, #4
P: Brett Kern, #6
KR: Michael Campanaro, #10
PR: Adoree’ Jackson, #25
 

Backfield by Committee

“Dion Lewis is coming in to be the lightning to Derrick Henry’s thunder!”
 
Let’s get something straight – those of you who don’t follow the Titans very closely might still think Henry is a bruiser. I get it. I mean, look at the guy. He’s a house. Three stories, easy. His nickname is ‘El Tractorcito’. He is your classic between the tackles, short yardage boom-back, because of course he is. King George paved the way for King Henry.
 
Nope. I mean, we sort of wish that sometimes. But he isn’t. Not during the first three quarters, at least. He’s only certain to drop his shoulder when he sees his son acting out and needs to dole out some old-fashioned discipline. Henry is an outside zone back who struggles to find room between the tackles and will net your offense very few yards on up the gut, iso plays. Part of that is due to his sheer size (the man needs a big hole) and lack of quick twitch agility.
 
The main reason is that Henry is a momentum back, or more aptly, a glider. He's a very upright runner. Honestly, he runs like he has an urgent shit to take. Henry wants and needs open space so he can get into a gallop. He’s an unusually large running back with uncommon proportions. It takes him longer to hit his top speed, but when he does, look out. He will use his massive wingspan to his advantage. And if you don’t have the angle, he will outrun you. He is a freak of nature that would prefer to beat you to the corner than to lower the boom. For a good look at Henry’s real strengths and what the Titans offense could look like in 2018, check out this video by the only smart Texans fan (/s), u/Barian_Fostate.
 
Dion Lewis is a different animal. Believe it or not, he’s going to be the back that excels on between-the-tackles runs more so than Henry. Most people think he was signed exclusively as Tennessee’s third-down back, and while he will help to fill that role, Lewis has made a his living being as complete a back as you’ll see in the NFL. Let’s consider these advanced year-end stats from his most recent season:
Lewis had 25 10+ yard runs in the 2017 season and only seven of those plays were designed outside runs. He’s a tiny guy that linebackers will lose sight of behind the lines, but he’s compact and powerful. He’s both elusive and fast. He’ll be fun to watch in this system.
 

Secondary vs Passing Game

Tennessee’s secondary will have the opportunity to challenge a WR group that has a lot of questions to answer during camp. During OTAs, the receivers struggled to separate, causing Mariota to struggle. It’s hard to tell this early on whether that news is a net gain or a net loss. Is our secondary that good or are our receivers still behind the curve? The offense is always handicapped at this stage of learning a new system, so things will take time to develop. This storyline will be one to watch, but as a fan, you should appreciate that your young QB and WR corps will get to test their mettle against a seasoned, talented, well coached secondary. Butler will likely be CB1 and Jackson will be CB2. This will allow Logan Ryan to slide to the slot, where he is historically most comfortable and effective. Sims will get the sporadic nod at CB4.
 

Position Groups +/-

QBTop 15 in NFL

Strengths: Youth, mobility, creativity. Marcus Mariota is an electric dual threat. He now has the chance to thrive in a modern offense that is suited to his talents and he has something to prove after an ugly year 3.
Weaknesses: Sporadic accuracy. Sometimes he’s on, sometimes he isn’t. Correcting the issue with his base could help, but we need to see more. Mariota has also missed time in each of his three seasons due to injury. Can he stay healthy for 16 games, plus playoffs? Availability is crucial and no team wants to rely on its backup QB for long stretches. In this division, even stumbling in the short term could keep you out of the playoffs.

BackfieldTop 10 in NFL

Strengths: Variety. Henry is our big, fast guy. Lewis is our small, fast guy. This backfield will present plenty of matchup problems for defenses this year.
Weaknesses: Durability. Henry hasn’t had a history of injury in his professional career but Lewis has been unavailable at times. Akrum Wadley is an UDFA to look out for if Lewis or Henry miss time this season, but it’s rarely a good thing to be forced to rely on an UDFA.

OLTop 5 in NFL

Strengths: Work well together as a unit. When healthy, both tackles are All-Pro caliber. The interior line is above average. They seem to be obsessed with protecting Marcus, especially Taylor Lewan.
Weaknesses: Lewan has grown up quite a bit since his rookie season, but he’s still a risk to draw penalties and get ejected from the game. Quinton Spain isn’t as bad, but is also a risk for this. Depth behind the starters is iffy. We don’t have specifics yet, but Conklin could miss part of, if not the entire first quarter of the season(potentially more). That’s at least 4 games with a question mark at RT. Go look at our first four games for maximum discomfort.

Pass catchersBottom Third of NFL

Strengths: Delanie Walker. Rishard Matthews. Both have been dependable and productive targets since they arrived. Delanie had a down season in 2017, but only by his rather lofty standards. This unit’s strengths are top heavy until proven otherwise.
Weaknesses: Youth and inexperience. The unknown. Will former 5th overall pick Corey Davis make a big leap coming into year 2? Can he stay healthy? Is Taywan Taylor anything more than a gadget player? Has Tajae Sharpe made the needed strides to be consistent in the NFL? Can Jonnu Smith become a better route runner and blocker? Will any of the UDFA’s step up and surprise us? Not a great unit on paper, but could become solid under ideal circumstances. Could be a big ask.

DLTop 15 in NFL

Strengths: Jurrell Casey is one of the best linemen in the NFL and he leads a small group of guys who routinely benefit from the attention he attracts. DaQuan Jones is an up and coming player who could become a star if he doesn’t fall prey to the injury bug. Bennie Logan and David King are both dependable role players. All are versatile and can play basically any technique they’re asked to.
Weaknesses: Tennessee might not have enough effective guys in the DL rotation. Could be a big problem in 2018. Need to capitalize more often on frequent 1 on 1 matchups when Casey draws extra blockers.

LBTop 15 in NFL

Strengths: Core group remains intact from previous year. Only lost one role player to FA (Williamson), but replaced him with a first round pick in Evans. Morgan and Orakpo are still productive and 2018 is a contract year for them both. Look for at least one of the two to stand out. My money is on Morgan. Harold Landry will teeter on the line between boom or bust, but if he booms, every position on defense will benefit. Jayon Brown is a coverage specialist, but isn’t a slouch vs. the run. Might have a big second season with more snaps. Pay attention to Aaron Wallace. The former Bruin is making the most of each of his reps. Could have a surprise season in the rotation on 3rd downs.
Weaknesses: Inexperience at key spots. Unknowns for the rookies. Leaders of group are getting old. Must have remarkable production from newcomers to stay competitive. More depth concerns if recent draftees don’t pan out. If one starter goes down or underperforms, the group could collapse. Landry’s injury history could be significant and limit his effectiveness. Evans might lack elite closing speed vs NFL TEs and RBs.

SecondaryTop 10 in NFL

Strengths: This unit overachieved in 2017. Kevin Byard had a breakout sophomore campaign that got noticed by everyone except Deion Sanders. Logan Ryan proved to be a fantastic addition in his first season with Tennessee and is excited to once again play with former teammate Malcolm Butler. Johnathan Cyprien was hurt for a good portion of last year, but he played well on the back half of the season, including the wildcard win in KC. Adoree’ Jackson started out slow, but by season’s end, he showed that he can learn on the fly pretty damn well. The 2018 offseason will be Jackson’s first full offseason to focus solely on the cornerback position. No school, no track and field, no snaps on offense. Just cornerback. If he stays healthy, look for a big year from #25.
Weaknesses: Learning a new system and playbook could hamper everyone’s performance early on. Depth behind the starters is questionable here, too. LeShaun Sims is a great CB #3/4, but an expanded role could be too much for him – doubly so for Tye Smith and Kalan Reed. Byard could be a one hit wonder. Butler might not thrive outside of New England’s system. I know it’s easy to fall back on “just one key injury could derail this squad” but it really applies in this case.

Special TeamsTop 10 in NFL

Strengths: Ryan Succop and Brett Kern are criminally underrated members of this team. Both are consistently clutch year in and year out. Brett Kern is easily a top 5 punter. The role players do a great job of limiting yardage on returns. I’m on team “Give Adoree’ Fewer Snaps”, but Jackson is a major threat as a punt returner. Campanaro will likely field kickoffs and he’s no slouch himself. (Less exciting since the league is desperately trying to smother the kickoff with a decorative pillow.)
Weaknesses: Having said that, this unit struggles to avoid laundry on returns. They’re inconsistent in creating open space for their returners. Tennessee’s special teams, outside of the specialists, could be very average.
 

Schedule Predictions

Week 1: @ MIA -- W

Here’s the rematch everyone’s been waiting for (Matt Cassel v Jay Cutler: Bum Fights vol. Old). There are some key differences to each roster this season, which favor TEN. This one should be a win.

Week 2: HOU -- L

Vrabel is still getting the hang of this head coaching business. Presuming that Watson is healthy along with Watt, Mercilus, Clowney, etc and with Conklin on the PUP list -- Titans drop their home opener to a divisional foe.

Week 3: @ JAX -- W

Titans still have Jaguar kryptonite; they win again in the House of Khan.

Week 4: PHI -- L

I’m being realistic here. This is easily the best roster in the NFL.

Week 5: @ BUF -- W

Stark contrast from the previous week -- great defense paired with thin ice at QB. Who knows what’s gonna happen with Shady. Titans continue alternating wins and losses as they enter the 2nd quarter of 2018.

Week 6: BAL -- L

I have a bad feeling about this game. Lamar Jackson could be the starter and catch fire by week 6 and the Ravens may be amped up to embarrass their former DC who “retired” on them at the end of 2017.

Week 7: @ LAC (London) - W

The Titans win this game going into the bye. The small, geographic advantage over the west coast team proves significant.

Week 8: BYE

Titans are 4-3 and get to sleep off their jet lag.

Week 9: @DAL (MNF) -- W

While maybe not big favorites entering this matchup, the Cowboys usually fare well at home and in primetime. The Titans steal one in Dallas and string together consecutive wins for the first time in ‘18.

Week 10: NE -- L

Vrabel is too far removed from the franchise to counter any BB magic. If Tom Brady is in, the Pats win.

Week 11: @ IND - W

Even if Luck is back, this TEN roster is better overall. Marcus and the offense truly begin to hit their stride.

Week 12: @ HOU (MNF) -- W

The Titans maintain their primetime momentum and strike back at HOU to split the series on the year.

Week 13: NYJ -- W

Too many unanswered questions at QB for the Jets. This is a good team, but it may lack some cohesiveness. The Titans are a stronger team at this point.

Week 14: JAX (TNF) -- W

The streak remains alive. The Titans are now 4-0 against the Jags in the last 2 seasons.

Week 15: @ NYG -- L

Overconfidence strikes as the Titans drop a game vs Eli Manning and his rejuvenated offense.

Week 16: WAS (TBD/Flex) -- L

The sting from the previous week carries over, the Titans end up 1-3 vs the NFC East.

Week 17: IND -- W

Vrabel rallies his troops and gets win #10 on the year. This punctuates a season most see as an overachievement for the first year HC.

Final record: 10-6, 1st in South

Best Case: 10-6, as listed above. Everything comes together the way it’s drawn up. This record will put the Titans into the playoffs for the second consecutive year. But, I don’t see this team making it beyond the divisional round, even in the (realistic) best case. Who am I kidding? Super Bowl or Bust.
Worst Case: 6-10, either 3rd or 4th in the division. This could end up being a very rough schedule. Several of the W’s above could be narrow L’s. Like most teams, the Tennessee’s season could teeter on just a handful of significant plays. One or two mistakes per game could be the difference between the best and worst case. Still, I think the roster is good enough to win at least 6 of these games. The only upside in this scenario would be improved draft capital for our GM to have at his disposal the following offseason.
 

Training Camp Battles to Watch

Butler vs. Davis

Davis got the best of Butler when they met in the divisional round. Davis tallied five receptions for 63 yards and two TDs, one of which was a nifty, one-handed grab early in the game. While the rest of CD84’s team laid an egg, he thrived. We need to see if he can carry that momentum into 2018. That starts in training camp. Last year, Davis missed most reps in camp due to injury. Not only that, the few reps he did get weren’t against the level of competition he’ll face this year. Butler was brought in to be the type A at corner that we were missing. Both players get chance to make each other better and prove they’re worth what it cost the team to get them.
 

Landry vs Lewan

The 2nd round slip vs the All-Pro LT. Landry was an interesting prospect and will be just as interesting to watch during camp. Ideally, he’d get the chance to compete against both Lewan and Conklin, but that’s life in the NFL. Still, even Conklin’s back-ups are NFL caliber guys, which is to say a cut above almost all competition he faced in college. Landry will test his mettle against one of the league’s best tackles and prepare for a full season of proving his doubters wrong. As long as he stays healthy, his bend and athleticism will also test Lewan and prepare him for the more dynamic pass rushers we will face during the regular season. Pay close attention to this one.
 

Mariota vs Himself

A healthy offseason should go a very long way towards Mariota’s improvement over last season. He struggled mightily and for a few reasons. One of those reasons is now solved; they have new coaches who might have a clue how to use a modern QB. With that out of the way, Mariota needs to correct some fundamental things that cause him to be inconsistent. Breaking his leg at the end of the 2016 season doesn’t absolve him from every mistake, but it does seem to totally disappear from the radars of his detractors when they say, “LuL more INTs than TDs LuL”. It’s not an insignificant setback. Not only that, but he simply had piss poor luck in 2017. He only threw around 10 interceptable passes all season and they all got picked off. The rest were due to scheme issues or mistakes by other players.
 
This offseason, though, Marcus is healthy. And he knows what to fix. Sometimes, he throws from a narrow base. This stems from his ability to save busted plays with his mobility. The wider his base, the slower his first step will be out of the pocket. It’s a tough habit to break, but that narrow base causes him to miss high. That’s his biggest problem. There’s no doubt he’s accurate. If you say he is inaccurate, you aren’t paying attention. He just has frequent high misses, which comes down to precision. And precision begins with a consistent base and solid footwork. Here’s to hoping that a more Oregonian offense coupled with refinement of his fundamentals leads to a big rebound over last year’s disappointing stat line.
 
Look, if you hate him, you hate him. There’s probably no convincing you. Some people don’t like mac and cheese and they too are quite comfortable with being wrong. If you want to know more about why Mariota isn’t literal human trash, please check out these two posts by famed tennesseetitans mod u/_COWBOY_DAN. He’s just the best.
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BankNifty Future Trading Margin Requirement 1 Lot BUY & SELL में कितना Funds Utilized होगा  LIVE How much Margin required for Option selling in Alice blue LOWEST MARGIN REQUIRED TO TARDE IN CRUDEOIL AND NIFTY FUT. what is lot size and margin requirements in bank nifty and nifty option selling 2020 Margin Requirements In Options Trading  Option selling/writing margin

Nifty future has lowest margin requirement in future segment for intraday trading. Positional trading requires margin of Rs.45,000, whereas nifty future intraday trading requires margin of just Rs.10,500. This is major reason nifty future is widely chosen as a trading instrument with high liquidity and volumes. If you are the seller of call options or Short Call on Bank Nifty, you have the obligation to sell Bank Nifty on expiry if buyers exercise his right. You take a premium from the buyer and pays the margin money. Premium paid: 0; Initial Margin: ₹22793; Exposure Margin: ₹17462; Total Margin: ₹40254 Then its nifty future margin will be calculated like this: Nifty current price 9800 * current lot size 75 = 7, 35, 000/- is total value of 1 future contract. Currently, the exchange set 8% margin for a nifty future contract so money required to buy or sell 1 nifty future lot will be 8% of 7, 35,000/- which comes at 58,800/- rupees. Option Writing Margin is referred to cash, where the trader should deposit in his trading account before writing options. The margin varies based on the position taken by the clients and trader must understand the option writing margin is required as collateral with the broker to clear the obligation of the contract and option writing margin for intraday is differ from broker to broker. For example, Titan Industries lot size is 1000 shares & margin required is 23%. Titan is currently trading at 225 Rupees a share. So lot value of Titan is 1000 x 225 = 2,25,000 Rupees. Margin required is 23% of 2,25,000 which amounts to 51,750 Rupees. Similarly, you can calculate margin required for all stocks.

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BankNifty Future Trading Margin Requirement 1 Lot BUY & SELL में कितना Funds Utilized होगा LIVE

Margin requirements in Options Trading Option selling margin/ writing margin requires a High investment which is not always suitable for every kind of trader.for those who require it for option ... how much margin required in option plus sell in bank nifty icici direct ... in this video we are going to see how to trade nifty option live and book profit. learn bank nifty trading and shares ... This video is for beginners. here option lot size is explained with Example and how much is margin required when you are selling or buying option. Join my free Telegram grp for nifty trading and ... How much Margin required for Option selling in Alice blue Aliceblue Margin Requirement For Buying And Selling Nifty Options. Tthis video covers how much margin is required for buying Nifty options ... 5000 MARGIN REQUIRED TO TRADE IN CRUDE OIL. ALICEBLUE ACCOUNT OPENING LINK. http://alicebluepartners.in/vgfs/Registration.aspx

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