I'm pretty amateur when it comes to data analysis but I think I've found a relatively consistent indicator of Bitcoin price performance. Specifically I was able to generate a 22% profit over a 3 month period.submitted by DirectBus to data [link] [comments]
Here is the process that I used:
BTC USD: Daily indicator directly from Google Trends.
Buy Bitcoin: Daily indicator directly from Google Trends.
Price: Current day's close price from Coin Market Cap.
Column E: "Buy Bitcoin"/"BTC USD" ratio
Column F: The Buy/Sell decision formula. For example here is the formula for cell F20: =if(AND(E20>35%,G20>80),"BUY","SELL") . Note that "35%" is the threshold to Buy along with the price being greater than "$80".
Column G: Bitcoin price difference from prior day's close.
Column H: Running total based on an initial $100,000 investment on 7/7/2018 (the first Buy).
So over a 3 month period a $100K investment becomes $128,839 in my dataset.
Here is what I'd like feedback on:
a) The ">35%" and ">$80" are rather arbitrary based on what seems to work in this 90 day dataset. Is there a better formula that will yield a better Buy/Sell signal?
b) I am not experienced working with larger datasets and had trouble getting the daily numbers for the Google Trend data and the BTC price over a longer period of time. Can anyone successfully reproduce these results over a longer time span?
If the above can be validated I'd like to work with someone to improve on this indicator. If someone a lot better at this than me comes along and proves that this is total crap--great, then I can go back to sleep! :) . Thanks in advance and hopefully we can all learn together.
Here is my work-in-progress Google Sheet with the above data in Sheet 1: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1drrOqUZKEeUOYeRa6tevrQHs7AkQnNbSrCkVXNQZVsU/edit?usp=sharing
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|submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]|
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4. Transaction FeesTransferring funds across the blockchain and withdrawing them from Bittrex costs a fee for customers, with the rate unique for every coin.
Bittrex Global charges no commission for deposits. Please keep in mind that some tokens or cash may be required to perform a transaction by a crypto coin or token’s community. Bittrex crypto exchange can’t keep away from it.
Every token or coin has a blockchain transaction fee that is built in it, and the Bittrex fee is a small amount to cover this charge. You can view the fee percentage for every coin or token by clicking Withdrawal near to the coin. There you will see a transaction fee you will be charged for withdrawing a specific coin or token.
In the example below, the withdrawal fee amounts to 1 USDT
The transaction fee for Bitcoin came to 0.00050000 BTC
5. Trading FeesThe fee schedule below provides the applicable rate based on the account's 30-Day Volume and if the order is a maker or taker.
Bittrex Global Fee30 Day Volume (USD)MakerTaker$0k - $50k0.2%0.2%$50k - $1M0.12%0.18%$1M - $10M0.05%0.15%$10M - $60M0.02%0.1%$60M+0%0.08%>$100MContact TAM representative
Trading expenses are incurred when an order is prepared by means of the Bittrex worldwide matching engine. While an order is being executed, the purchaser and the vendor are charged a rate primarily based on the order’s amount. The fee charged by Bittrex exchange is calculated by the formula amount * buy rate * fee. There aren't any charges for placing an order which is not being executed so far. Any portion of an unfinished order will be refunded completely upon order cancelation.
Prices vary depending on the currency pair, monthly trade volume, and whether the order is a maker or taker. Bittrex reserves the right to alternate fee quotes at any time, including offering various discounts and incentive packages.
Monthly VolumeYour buying and selling volume affects the fee you pay for every order. Our expenses are built to encourage customers who ensure liquidity in the Bittrex crypto exchange markets. Your buying and selling charges are reduced according to your trade volume for the last 30 years in dollars.
Bittrex calculates the 30-day value every day, updating every account's volume calculation and buying and selling charge between of 12:30 AM UTC and 01:30 AM UTC every day.
You can check your monthly trade volume by logging in and opening Account > My Activity.
6. Withdrawing FundsWithdrawing any type of funds is likewise simple. You can profit by buying and selling Bitcoin, Ether, or any other cryptocurrency.
You determine the crypto address—to which the amount will be credited—and the transaction amount. The withdrawal fee will be automatically calculated and shown right away.
After confirming the transaction, the finances will be sent to the specified addresses and all that you need to do is to wait for the community to confirm the transaction.
If the 2FA is enabled, then the user receives a special code (via SMS or application) to confirm the withdrawal.
7. How to Trade on Bittrex GlobalCurrency selling and buying transactions are performed using the Sell and Buy buttons, accordingly.
To begin with, the dealer selects a currency pair and sees a graph of the rate dynamics and different values for the pair.
Below the chart, there is a section with orders where the user can buy or sell a virtual asset.
To create an order, you just need to specify the order type, price, and quantity. And do not forget about the 0.25% trade fee whatever the quantity.
For optimum profit, stay with liquid assets as they can be quickly sold at a near-market rate effective at the time of the transaction. Bittrex offers no referral program; so buying and selling crypto is the easiest way to earn.
Order TypesBittrex helps you alternate Limit and Stop-Limit orders.
A limit order or a simple limit order is performed when the asset fee reaches—or even exceeds—the price the trader seeks. To execute such an order, it is required that there's a counter market order on the platform that has the identical fee as the limit order.
Differences between Limit Order and Stop Limit OrderA stop limit order is a mixture of a stop limit order and a limit order. In such an application, charges are indicated—a stop charge and the limit.
Stop Limit Order Purposehttps://preview.redd.it/hlxvy9ti4zh51.jpg?width=1141&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=064a77459a4dcb4555a885cbc56629aae10fc38b
Trade TerminalLet’s discuss how you could trade conveniently with our service.
The key features include a user-friendly interface and precise currency pair statistics (timeframe graphs, network data, trade volumes, and so forth).
The platform’s top-notch advantage is handy, easy-to-analyze, customizable charts. There is also a column for quick switching between currency pairs and an order panel beneath the fee chart. Such an all-encompassing visual solution helps compare orders efficiently and in one place.
You can use the terminal in a day or night mode; when in the night mode, the icon in the upper-right corner changes and notice the Bittrex trading terminal in night mode is displayed. The main menu consists of 4 sections: Markets, Orders, Wallets, Settings.
Markets are the trade section. Bittrex allows handling over 270 currency pairs.
Orders. To see all open orders, go to Orders → Open.
To see completed orders, go to Orders → Completed.
Wallets. The Wallets tab displays many wallets for all cryptocurrencies supported by the exchange and the current balance of each of them.
After refilling the balance or creating a buy or sale order, you will see all actions in the section. Bittrex allows creating a separate wallet for every coin. Additionally, you can see how the coin price has changed, in terms of percentage, throughout the day.
Here’s what you can also do with your wallets:
How to SellThe process of selling crypto assets follows the same algorithm. The only difference is that after choosing the exchange direction, you need to initiate a Sell order. All the rest is similar: you select the order type, specify the quantity and price, and click Sell *Currency Name* (Sell Bitcoin in our case).
If you scroll the screen, the entire history of trades and orders will be displayed below.
LONG and SHORTYou can make a long deal or a short deal. Your choice depends on whether you expect an asset to fall or rise in price.
Long positions are a classic trading method. It concerns purchasing an asset to profit when its value increases. Long positions are carried out through any brokers and do not require a margin account. In this case, the trader’s account must have enough funds to cover the transaction.
Losses in a long position are considered to be limited; no matter when the trade starts, the price will not fall below zero with all possible errors. Short positions, in contrast, are used to profit from a falling market. A trader buys a financial instrument from a broker and sells it. After the price reaches the target level, the trader buys back the assets or buys them to pay off the initial debt to the broker.
A short position yields profit if the price falls, and it is considered unprofitable the price matches the asset value. Performing a short order requires a margin account as a trader borrows valuable assets from a broker to complete a transaction. Long transactions help gain from market growth; short from a market decline.
Trade via APIBittrex also supports algorithmic trading through extensive APIs (application programming interface), which allows you to automate the trading process using third-party services.
To create an API key, the user must enable the two-factor authentication 2FA, verify their account, and log in to the site within 3 minutes.
If all the requirements of the system are fulfilled, you can proceed to generate the API key. Log in to your Bittrex account, click Settings. Find API Keys. Click Add new key (Create a new key).
Toggle on / off settings for READ INFO, TRADE, or WITHDRAW, depending on what functionality you want to use for our API key.
Click Save and enter the 2FA code from the authenticator → Confirm.
The secret key will be displayed only once and will disappear after the page is refreshed. Make sure you saved it!
To delete an API key, click X in the right corner for the key that you want to delete, then click Save, enter the 2FA code from the authenticator and click Confirm.
Bittrex Bot, a Trader’s AssistantRobotized programs that appeared sometimes after the appearance of cryptocurrency exchanges save users from monotonous work and allow automating the trading process.
Bots for trading digital money work like all the other bots: they perform mechanical trading according to the preset parameters.
Currently, one of Bittrex’s most popular trading bots is Bittrex Flash Crash Buyer Bot that helps traders profit from altcoin volatility without missing the right moment.
The program monitors all the market changes in the market every second; also, it even can place an order in advance. The Bittrex bot can handle a stop loss—to sell a certain amount of currency when the rate changes in a favorable direction and reaches a certain level.
8. Secure PlatformBittrex Global employs the most reliable and effective security technologies available. There are many cases of theft, fraud. It is no coincidence that the currency is compared to the Wild West, especially if we compare the 1800s when cowboys rushed to the West Coast of America to earn and start something new in a place that had no rules.
Cryptocurrency is still wild. One can earn and lose money fast. But Bittrex has a substantial security policy thanks to the team’s huge experience in security and development for companies such as Microsoft, Amazon, Qualys, and Blackberry.
The system employs an elastic, multi-stage holding strategy to ensure that the majority of funds are kept in cold storage for extra safety.
Bittrex Global also enables the two-factor authentication for all users and provides a host of additional security features to provide multiple layers of protection.
Bittrex cold wallet: https://bitinfocharts.com/en/bitcoin/address/385cR5DM96n1HvBDMzLHPYcw89fZAXULJP
How to Pass IP VerificationTo ensure higher security of your Bittrex Global account, the system requires all users to approve each new IP address through an email confirmation. This IP verification procedure is required every time you attempt to log in from a new IP Address.
Confirming your IP address.
The new IP address must be confirmed from the device that you are using to access Bittrex Global. This means that you must follow the CLICK HERE TO LOGIN link in an email on the device that you want to use to access your account.
To ensure even more security, Bittrex Global supports whitelisting of IP addresses and Crypto addresses. These two features can help protect the account in the event of credentials or API key loss.
How to Add IP Address to WhitelistBy setting one or more whitelisted addresses, you are telling Bittrex Global to only authorize trades or withdrawals from those IPs. This concerns both the global.bittrex.com web interface and API-based trades or withdrawals. To do this, click IP Whitelist in Site Settings.
How to Add Crypto Address to WhitelistBy setting a withdrawal address, you are telling Bittrex Global to authorize withdrawals only to that address.
This concerns both the global.bittrex.com web interface and API based withdrawals.
Note that when opting into this feature, you need to specify a withdrawal address would like to withdraw funds from for every currency. To do this, click Withdrawal Whitelist in the Site Settings section. The example below shows a BTC address.
AfterwordBittrex Global is a reliable and advanced platform for trading digital assets with a respected reputation, long history, and active market presence and development nowadays. The exchange is eligible to be used globally, including the US and its territories.
The legal component of Bittrex Global is one of the most legitimate among numerous crypto-asset exchanges.
The Bittrex team has had great ambitions and managed to deliver promises and more. The exchange staff comprises forward-thinking and exceptional individuals whose success is recognized in the traditional business and blockchain sector.
Bittrex's purpose is to be the driving force in the blockchain revolution, expanding the application, importance, and accessibility of this game-changing technology worldwide.
The exchange fosters new and innovative blockchain and related projects that could potentially change the way money and assets are managed globally.
Alongside innovation, safety will always be the main priority of the company. The platform utilizes the most reliable and effective practices and available technologies to protect user accounts. Bittrex customers have always primarily been those who appreciate the highest degree of security.
Because of the way the Bittrex trading platform is designed, it can easily scale to always provide instant order execution for any number of new customers.
Bittrex supports algorithmic trading and empowers its customers with extensive APIs for more automated and profitable trading.
One of the common features which is not available on the exchange is margin trading. No leverage used however adds up to the exchange's stability and prevents fast money seekers and risky traders from entering the exchange.
Bittrex is a force of the blockchain revolution and an important entity of the emerging sector.
The full version
The Relative Strength Index (RSI), is one of the most popular indicators used in Technical Analysis. Firstly Introduced in J. Welles Wilder’s book, “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems”, the RSI is a momentum oscillator that measures the velocity of directional price movement and scaled between 0-100. In the classic view, security is thought to be overbought when its RSI reading is above 70 and oversold when its RSI reading falls below 30.submitted by Onah92 to technicalanalysis [link] [comments]
# How is it Calculated?The equation for the Relative Strength Index, RSI, is:
For the first calculation of the Relative Strength Index, RSI, we need the previous 14 day’s close prices. The initial RSI is calculated as follows:
# How to Use it CorrectlyIf used properly, the RSI can be a very valuable tool in interpreting chart movement.
Tops and Bottoms: These are indicated when the Index goes above 70 or below 30. The Index will usually top out or bottom out before the actual market top or bottom, giving an indication that a reversal or at least a significant reaction is imminent.
Failure Swings: When the RSI crosses down the 70 level and rebounds back up yet fails to reach the previous high. The low point made when the RSI rebounded is considered as a potential short entry point when the RSI moves below this level. Conversely, when the RSI crosses up over the 30 level and rebounds back down but fails to move as low as the previous low reading, it is a failure swing. The peak made when the RSI rebounded is considered a potential long entry point when the RSI moves above this level.
Support and Resistance: Areas of support and resistance often show up clearly on the RSI before becoming apparent on the bar chart. In fact, support and resistance lines drawn using the RSI points are often analogous to trend lines drawn using bar chart points.
Divergence: Divergence between price action and the RSI is a very strong indicator of a market turning point. Divergence occurs when the RSI is increasing while the price movement is either flat or decreasing. Conversely, divergence occurs when the RSI is decreasing price movement is either flat or increasing.
Here is an example of a bullish divergence on BTC/USD (Bitcoin) which signaled the bullish trend occurred after that:
As you can see, a bullish divergence formed in November-December of 19. The bullish divergence formed with Bitcoin moving to new lows in December and RSI holding above its prior low. The mid-December breakout confirmed improving momentum. Divergences tend to be more robust when they form after an overbought or oversold reading.
# SummaryThe Relative Strength Index (RSI), used in conjunction with a bar chart, can provide a new dimension of interpretation for the chart trader. No single tool, method or system is going to produce the right answers 100% of the time. A successful trader utilizes several different kinds of input into his decisions. The Relative Strength Index can be a valuable input to your toolbox and into your decision-making process.
\This post has been written by Hedgehog, an MCS influencer and one of Korea's famous cryptocurrency key opinion leaders.*submitted by MyCoinStory to MyCoinStory [link] [comments]
Greetings from MCS, the derivatives trading platform where traders ALWAYS come first.
Today, I'm going to explain about the Maker Order, one of the must-know concepts that you should be familiar with while trading bitcoin margin.
There are three main types of orders that you submit for bitcoin margin trading. There are Maker orders, Taker orders, and Hidden orders. In this post, I'm going to tell you more about the Maker order, and how to calculate the trading rebate.
🎯 Maker orderMaker orders are the orders that take place in the order book, not orders that are executed as soon as you place them.
Let's assume that there is an order book like the one above. If you place an order to sell 10,000 contracts for $12,363, 10,000 contracts will be accumulated in 49,363 contracts already stacked at $12,363. The case where your orders are accumulated in the order book is called a maker order. If you place an order to sell 10,000 contracts at $12,362, since 23,404 purchase contracts are already accumulated at $12,362, my 10,000 contracts do not accumulate in the order book. This will be a Taker order, not a Maker order. Taker orders will be explained in more detail in the following blog post.
🎯 Advantages of a Maker OrderAs explained above, Maker orders serve to provide liquidity for other traders as the buy or sell balances are accumulated in the order book. Therefore, in the MCS BTC/USDT perpetual contract product, the trader who successfully concludes the trading with a maker order does not pay a trading fee, but rather receive a fee rebate of 0.025%.
🎯 Maker Rebate Fee CalculationYou can calculate how much rebate you can get for placing a Maker order using the following formula:
💡 Maker Order Rebate Formula = Position Value * 0.025%Example)In the above order book, if I submit 10,000 contracts for $12,363 as a Maker order, and this order is successfully executed by someone, the Maker rebate I receive is as follows:
💡 Position value = (10000 / 12363) = 0.80886516 BTCThe position value can be calculated through (Contract Quantity / Transaction Price), and the position value of 10,000 contracts for $12363 is 0.80886516 BTC.
Multiply this position value by 0.025% to get the rebate I will receive.
💡 0.80886516 * 0.025% = 0.00020222 BTCTherefore, if the Sell Maker order of 10,000 contracts for $12,363 is successfully executed, I will receive a rebate of 0.00020222 BTC to my balance.
Since the rebate for maker orders is different for each perpetual contract product, it is recommended that you check the fee information before trading and then trade.
I am a Bitcoin margin trader, Hedgehog. Thank you for reading this post.
🔸 MCS Official Website : https://mycoinstory.com
🔸 MCS Telegram : https://t.me/mycoinstory_en
Traders ALWAYS come first on MCS.
MCS Official Twitter (EN): https://twitter.com/mycoinstory_mcs
MCS Official Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MyCoinStory.official
\This post has been written by Hedgehog, an MCS influencer and one of Korea's famous cryptocurrency key opinion leaders.*submitted by MyCoinStory to MyCoinStory [link] [comments]
#Be_a_Trader!Greetings from MCS, the derivatives trading platform where traders ALWAYS come first.
The global gold price continues to rise. The gold price ended at $2049.30, up 1.4% ($28.30) per ounce for December delivery on the New York Mercantile Exchange on the 5th local time. For the first time in history, the gold price hit the $2,000 per ounce mark and settled to the $2,050 mark in a day. It is an unprecedented rise in gold price with an increase during 4 consecutive trading days and hit record highs 7 times in the last 8 trading days.
The cryptocurrency market also showed strong increases last night. As of 20:00 UTC, the bitcoin price was 11693.51 dollars, up 3.96% from the previous day, and Ethereum and Litecoin rose 3.17% and 3.29%, respectively. Also, Bitcoin dominance recorded 60.8%.
With the rise of international gold prices, traders around the world are naturally watching the bitcoin price. Today, we will share how you can realize profits through the trading of bitcoin derivatives, the perpetual contracts.
💡 "Bitcoin Derivatives Perpetual Contract Trading is a Trade of Contracts."Understanding contract trading is the most difficult part for existing stock traders and traders who trade cryptocurrency spots when trading perpetual contracts. Let's take a closer look at the example of trading stocks and bitcoin derivatives below.
In the case of stocks, the money required to buy a stock of $5,000, you pay $5,000. If you buy one share of the stock for $5,000 and then sell the stock when the stock reaches $6,000, you realize a profit of $1,000.
As mentioned above, contracts are traded in the case of perpetual contracts. However, the value of each contract is roughly the same for each derivatives exchange. With MCS's BTC/USDT perpetual contracts as an example, 1 contract is worth 1 USDT.
💡 "1 Contract = 1 USDT? How do I trade that with Bitcoin?"Assuming the price of bitcoin is 10,000 USDT, how many contracts can I buy on the BTC/USDT perpetual contracts with 1 BTC? As each bitcoin is worth 10,000 USDT, 10,000 contracts worth 1 USDT can be bought or sold.
So the question here, if the price of bitcoin is 20,000 USDT and I have 1 BTC, how many BTC/USDT perpetual contracts can I buy from MCS?
It would be 20,000 contracts. The easy way to figure this out is with this formula. "present value / contract value of bitcoin". In this formula, if the present value of bitcoin = 20,000 USDT and the contract value = 1 USDT, if substituted, it becomes 20,000/1 = 20,000 contracts.
💡 "Now I understand the concept of contracts, so how do I make profits??"Bitcoin perpetual contracts have a long position that predicts the price increase and a short position predicting the price decrease. This revenue calculation part is well explained in the help center of MCS.
MCS Perpetual Contracts Profit and Loss Calculation :
🎯 "You don't have to be excellent to start, but you have to start to be great." - Les Brown
If you are a trader who wants to realize economic freedom through cryptocurrency trading, I recommend the trading perpetual contracts on MCS. Firsts are always difficult and feels unfamiliar. However if you adapt and build up your know-how, it is like acquiring a new weapon that others do not have. If there are traders being lazy in learning due to the difficulty, MCS provides online customer support 24/7, so if you do not understand something, please get help from the MCS support team.
This is it from the margin trader Hedgehog.
*Bitcoin derivatives trading is a high-risk, high-return investment, so it is recommended to fully understand all related matters before trading.
Traders ALWAYS come first on MCS.
MCS Website: https://mycoinstory.com/
MCS Official Twitter (EN): https://twitter.com/mycoinstory_mcs
MCS Official Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MyCoinStory.official
MCS Telegram Chat (EN): https://t.me/mycoinstory_EN
submitted by CelesOS to u/CelesOS [link] [comments]
The consensus mechanism is one of the important elements of the blockchain and the core rule of the normal operation of the distributed ledger. It is mainly used to solve the trust problem between people and determine who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining the effective unification of the system in the blockchain system. Thus, it has become an everlasting research hot topic in blockchain.
This article starts with the concept and role of the consensus mechanism. First, it enables the reader to have a preliminary understanding of the consensus mechanism as a whole; then starting with the two armies and the Byzantine general problem, the evolution of the consensus mechanism is introduced in the order of the time when the consensus mechanism is proposed; Then, it briefly introduces the current mainstream consensus mechanism from three aspects of concept, working principle and representative project, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream consensus mechanism; finally, it gives suggestions on how to choose a consensus mechanism for blockchain projects and pointed out the possibility of the future development of the consensus mechanism.
First, concept and function of the consensus mechanism
1.1 Concept: The core rules for the normal operation of distributed ledgers
1.2 Role: Solve the trust problem and decide the generation and maintenance of new blocks
1.2.1 Used to solve the trust problem between people
1.2.2 Used to decide who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining effective unity in the blockchain system
1.3 Mainstream model of consensus algorithm
Second, the origin of the consensus mechanism
2.1 The two armies and the Byzantine generals
2.1.1 The two armies problem
2.1.2 The Byzantine generals problem
2.2 Development history of consensus mechanism
2.2.1 Classification of consensus mechanism
2.2.2 Development frontier of consensus mechanism
Third, Common Consensus System
Fourth, Selection of consensus mechanism and summary of current situation
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
4.1.1 Determine whether the final result is important
4.1.2 Determine how fast the application process needs to be
4.1.2 Determining the degree to which the application requires for decentralization
4.1.3 Determine whether the system can be terminated
4.1.4 Select a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 1 Concept and Function of Consensus Mechanism plus Chapter 2 Origin of Consensus Mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms
Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 2)
Figure 6 Summary of relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms
Source: Hasib Anwar, "Consensus Algorithms: The Root Of The Blockchain Technology"
The picture above shows 14 relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms summarized by a geek Hasib Anwar, including PoW (Proof of Work), PoS (Proof of Stake), DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), LPoS (Lease Proof of Stake), PoET ( Proof of Elapsed Time), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), SBFT (Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), Proof-of-Activity (Proof of Activity), Proof-of- Importance (Proof of Importance), Proof-of-Capacity (Proof of Capacity), Proof-of-Burn ( Proof of Burn), Proof-of-Weight (Proof of Weight).
Next, we will mainly introduce and analyze the top ten consensus mechanisms of the current blockchain.
Delegated Byzantine fault tolerance. The improved Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm makes it suitable for blockchain systems. The system consists of nodes, delegators (who can approve blocks), and speakers (who proposes the next block). It is a consensus algorithm that guarantees fault tolerance implemented inside the NEO blockchain.
In this mechanism, there are two participants: the professional bookkeeper "bookkeeping node" and the ordinary users in the system.
Ordinary users vote based on the proportion of holding stake to determine the bookkeeping node. When a consensus is required, a spokesperson is randomly selected from these bookkeeping nodes to draw up a plan, and then other bookkeeping nodes will vote basing on the Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm.That is, majority principle. If more than 66% of the nodes agree to the spokesperson’ plan, a consensus is reached; otherwise, the spokesperson is re-elected and the voting process is repeated.
-Representative application: Neo, etc.
Proof of authority. That is, certified by some accredited accounts, these accredited accounts are called "validators". The software that the verifier runs that supports the verifier to place transactions in blocks.
-Representative applications: VeChain, etc.
Directed acyclic graph. Each newly added unit in the DAG is not only added to the long chain block, but added to all the previous blocks, verifying each new unit and confirming its parent unit and the parent unit of the parent unit, and gradually confirming until the genesis unit. As the hash of its parent unit is included in its own unit, the blockchains of all transactions are connected to each other to form a graph-like structure with time.
In the DAG network, each node can be a trader and a validator, because the transaction processing in DAG is done by the transaction node itself. Taking IOTA as an example, IOTA’s Tangle led
ger does not need to pay transaction fees while ensuring high-speed transaction processing. However, it does not mean that the transaction is free, because in this ledger, the initiation of each transaction needs to verify the other two random transactions first, and connect the transaction initiated by itself to these two transactions, so the responsibility that miners on the blockchain bear is distributed to all traders. The DAG method of processing transactions can be called asynchronous processing mode.
Figure 10 The difference between the traditional blockchain structure and the DAG structure
-Representative applications: IOTA, etc.
Proof of elapsed time. That is, it is usually used in a permissioned blockchain network. It can determine the mining rights of the block holders in the network. The permissioned blockchain network requires any prospective participants to verify their identity before joining. According to the principles of the fair lottery system, each node is equally likely to become the winner.
Each participating node in the network must wait for a randomly selected period, and the first node to complete the set waiting time will get a new block. Each node in the blockchain network will generate a random waiting time and sleep for a set time. The node that wakes up first, that is, the node with the shortest waiting time, wakes up and submits a new block to the blockchain, and then broadcasts the necessary information to the entire peer-to-peer network. The same process will be repeated to find the next block.
Proof of stake velocity. Proposed by Reddcoin, drawing on the concept of "money circulation speed" in economics, it mainly allocates bookkeeping rights based on the coin age of nodes participating in the competition.
PoSV also allocates accounting rights according to the coin age of the nodes participating in the competition, but modifies the coin age calculation formula to a function of exponential decay of growth rate. Taking Reddcoin as an example, Reddcoin sets the half-life of the coin age growth rate to 1 month. Assuming that the unit token can accumulate 1CoinDay coin age on the first day, only 0.5CoinDay coin age can be accumulated on the 31st day, and only 0.25CoinDay coin age can be accumulated on the 61st day, and so on. In this way, the nodes are encouraged to use the token to conduct a transaction after holding the token for a period of time, thereby restarting the calculation of the coin age and increasing the circulation speed of the token in the network.
-Representative applications: Reddcoin, etc.
Table 2 Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of current mainstream consensus mechanisms
Source: network resources
Chapter 4 Summary of the Selection and Status Quo of Consensus Mechanism
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
Step 1: Determine whether the final result is important
For some applications, the end result is very important. If you are building a new payment system that can support very small amounts, it is acceptable for the transaction result to change. Similarly, if you are creating a new distributed social network, 100% guarantee that the status is updated immediately is not particularly necessary. On the contrary, if you are creating a new distributed protocol, the final result is critical to the user experience. For example, Bitcoin has a final confirmation time of about 1 hour, Ethereum has a final confirmation time of about 6 minutes, and Tendermint Core only has a final confirmation time of 1 second.
Step 2: Determine how fast the application process needs to be
If you are building a game, is it reasonable to wait 15 seconds before each action? Due to the low block processing time of Ethereum, games built on it will cause poor user experience due to Ethereum's throughput. However, the application for the transfer of housing property rights can be run on Ethereum. Use the Cosmos SDK to build an application that allows developers to freely use Tendermint Core. It has a short block processing time and high throughput, and is capable of processing 10,000 transactions per second. You can reduce the required communication overhead and speed up the application by setting the maximum number of validators for the application.
Step 3: Determine the application's demand for decentralization
Some applications such as games may not require very high censorship resistance as a by-product of decentralization. In theory, does it really matter that the validator can create a cartel in the game and reverse the transaction result for profit? If it is not important, a blockchain such as EOS may be more suitable for your needs because of the fast transaction speed and free fees. However, some applications such as autonomous banks are more powerful and decentralized. Although Ethereum is considered to be decentralized, some supporters claim that Ethereum's mining pool is an important part of centralized platform, although there are actually only 11 validators (mining pools). One of the major benefits of building your own blockchain instead of building on a smart contract platform is that you can customize the way the application completes verification. However, it is difficult to build your own blockchain, so the Cosmos SDK is very useful, you can easily build your own blockchain and customize the degree of decentralization you need.
Step 4: Determine whether the system can be terminated
If you are building a new application similar to a distributed ride-sharing service, then ensuring 24/7 service must be the first priority, even if there are occasional errors in accounting similar to transactions. One of the properties of Tendermint Core is that if there is a disagreement between network validators, the network will suspend operations instead of proceeding erroneous transactions. Applications such as decentralized exchanges require correctness at all costs-if there is a problem, it is far better to suspend trading on the decentralized exchange than there may be trading problems.
Summary: Choose a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
All in all, there is no single best consensus algorithm. Each consensus algorithm has its own value and advantages. You need to have your own judgments and choices. However, by understanding the relevant processes of the consensus mechanism, including proposals and agreements, and establishing a framework to consider the types of consensus algorithms that your application may require, you should be able to make wiser decisions.
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
The consensus algorithm is one of the core elements of the blockchain. Although there are more than 30 consensus mechanisms listed in the article, there are still many niche consensus mechanisms that may not be discussed. As the blockchain technology is gradually known and accepted by the public, more and more newer and better consensus algorithms may appear in the future, which may be brand-new consensus algorithms, and more should be improvement and optimization version based on the current consensus algorithm.
After 2016 and 2017 years’ fast development, the current consensus algorithm does not have a recognized evaluation standard, but is generally more biased towards fairness and decentralization, as well as some technical related issues, such as energy consumption and scalability , Fault tolerance and security, etc. However, blockchain technology must be combined with requirements and application scenarios, and the consensus mechanism algorithm and incentive mechanism are inseparable. How to customize a suitable consensus mechanism according to the characteristics of your own project and optimize the current consensus mechanism will become the future direction of consensus mechanism development
As the first DPOW financial blockchain operating system, CelesOS adopts consensus mechanism 3.0 to break through the "impossible triangle", which can provide high TPS while also allowing for decentralization. Committed to creating a financial blockchain operating system that embraces supervision, providing services for financial institutions and the development of applications on the supervision chain, and formulating a role and consensus ecological supervision layer agreement for supervision.
The CelesOS team is dedicated to building a bridge between blockchain and regulatory agencies/financial industry. We believe that only blockchain technology that cooperates with regulators will have a real future. We believe in and contribute to achieving this goal.
Our first post gave a short summary of our tokens’ functionality. This post is intended to give more background and reasoning for design decisions.submitted by ensluck to Owltoken [link] [comments]
Note: This post is out of date. Please see The Many Faces of an $OWL blog post for the latest on OWL use cases.
One of Bitcoin’s critical innovations was the addition of an incentive model to a peer-to-peer network protocol. Using a native currency and Proof of Work dispersion mechanism, Bitcoin rewards its workers and makes it incentive compatible for disparate parties to work together toward a common goal. In addition, using a native currency allows for protocol monetization. With SMTP for example, most work is done on the protocol layer, however all value is created on the application layer. The rapidly evolving world of cryptocurrencies has wasted no time in innovating this concept into a variety of “app” or “protocol” token models. In the initial “altcoin” stage of these models, tokens are dispensed similarly to Bitcoin and there is no unique utility within the network for these tokens. More recently, protocols with unique applications have iterated on this design with new dispersion mechanisms and uses for the coins within the protocol itself. Gnosis will follow this approach, hopefully with a few successful innovations of our own.
Building a sustainable ecosystem for token holders, participants, and application developers on a platform level cryptoeconomic system is difficult to achieve. Smart contracts are only as valuable as people’s trust in their verifiable execution. In order to achieve this trust, the code almost always needs to be made open source. Even if not made immediately open source, once deployed to the Ethereum network the bytecode can potentially be read and decompiled. Once this code is open source, it can be easily replicated and deployed with its own incentive model. Herein lies the dilemma: what incentivizes new participants to use the existing network, rather than copy the code and remove the fees (or set their own fees)?
The developing answer to this problem is network effect. We use Bitcoin and Ethereum, rather than forks of these protocols, due to the benefits provided by interoperability with other applications, services, and participants on the network. This argument extends beyond cryptoeconomics to markets and money in general. Money and markets become more useful and competitive as more people use them. eBay charges an inordinate amount of fees, however buyers and sellers still use it due to the critical mass on the platform. This network effect enables buyers to connect to sellers and vice versa for specialized products.
While network effect serves as a fundamental component driving Gnosis platform use, we believe that it’s important to take this a step further.
The Gnosis platform will be composed of three primary layers: Core, Services, and Application.
The Gnosis Layers
Layer One: Gnosis Core
The Core layer provides the foundational smart contracts for Gnosis use: event token creation and settlement, a market mechanism, oracle, and a management interface. This layer is and always will be free and open to use. Creating new markets is near zero marginal cost, and to remain competitive fees will have to approach zero. Instead of grasping at the maximum possible fees while remaining competitive, we feel that it is prudent to eliminate fees at the most basic contract level. It should be in every party’s best interest to use the existing open source and feeless contracts instead of deploying their own version.
Layer Two: Gnosis Services
The Gnosis Services layer will offer additional services on top of Gnosis Core and will use a trading fee model. These services will include a state channel implementation, new market mechanisms, stablecoin and payment processor integrations, open source template applications, application customization tools, and the oracle marketplace. More features may be introduced as deemed useful. These components are necessary for most consumer applications building on Gnosis.
State channels are a prerequisite for betting and financial applications requiring thousands or more transactions per second. Without stablecoins, market participants are subject to the volatility of the cryptocurrency which the market is denominated in and the event outcome that they are predicting. Application templates, customization tools, and advanced oracle selection will allow us to execute on our vision of lowering the barrier to entry for new prediction market based applications by at least two orders of magnitude. While some applications and participants will interact with Gnosis on the Core level, we are confident that these services will provide a compelling reason for Services level use.
Layer Three: Gnosis Applications
On top of the Services layer (or in some cases, just Gnosis Core) is the Gnosis application layer. These applications are primarily front-ends that target a particular prediction market use case and or customer segment. Some of these applications may be built by Gnosis, while others will be built by third parties. Our vision for Gnosis is to have a wide variety of prediction market applications built atop the same platform and liquidity pool. These applications will likely charge additional fees or use alternative business models such as market making, information selling, or advertising. As we’ll see in the next section on tokens, many Gnosis applications may include token holding as a core component of their business model.
Introducing the Tokens of the Realm: GNO and OWL
The token sold during the token launch is known as the Gnosis Token, or GNO. This is the only time that these tokens can be created, and therefore the total supply of GNO is fixed.
Fees, similar to those of a trading market, will be charged to participants on the Gnosis Services and Applications layers (but as a reminder, not the bare bones Core layer). These fees will initially be denominated in cryptocurrency, namely BTC or ETH. Gnosis seeks to not only create interesting software, but also a community of those interested in sharing their wisdom on Gnosis markets. To do this, we needed to create a model that lowers the barrier to entry for repeat users (e.g. having to pay BTC/ETH repeatedly). Therefore, in addition to paying this fee in BTC or ETH, Gnosis ecosystem participants will be able to pay the fee in OWL tokens.
Gnosis OWL can be used to pay platform fees on the Services layer, subsidize the fees of other participants, provide initial subsidies for markets, or for market trading. OWL will be pegged to $1 USD worth of fees. In this way, OWL acts as a coupon for $1 of use within Gnosis.
Gnosis tokens (GNO) are the generator for OWL creation. OWL can only be created via activating the utility of the Gnosis (GNO) tokens. This is done via a smart contract system. The smart contract works as follows: GNO token holders agree to “lock” their tokens in a smart contract (30–365 days). A multiplier is added for longer lock durations. The smart contract determines the user selected lock duration and applies that duration to a formula that is designed to regulate the supply of OWL tokens currently in use. Prior to locking their GNO tokens in the smart contract, users will be able to see exactly how much OWL they will receive as a result of executing the smart contract. Once users execute the contract, 30% of their OWL will be distributed for immediate use, and the remaining 70% will be distributed proportionally over the locked duration. Once the lock duration expires, the locked GNO ceases to generate OWL and the GNO becomes freely transferable by the holder. There is no limit (other than duration) for how many times GNO tokens may be used to create OWL.
How Can Gnosis Remain Viable if Participants Choose Not to Pay in OWL?
A core value proposition of Gnosis (and decentralization) is to guarantee future characteristics of platforms to both users and developers without relying on the trustworthiness of an operating company. In order to do this, elements including fee rates, must be codified into the software itself. It is expected that OWL will be the overwhelmingly predominant method for paying fees in the Gnosis ecosystem. In the unexpected event that this is not true, and users are paying in BTC or ETH, the platform may become vulnerable to low-fee copycats or potentially even illegal forks of the Gnosis codebase.
These alternative platforms may logically cause erosion of the Gnosis userbase, subsequently triggering justified loss of developer confidence that their created markets and applications will remain viable on Gnosis. In order to avoid this scenario, we designed a fee-reduction mechanism to bolster competitiveness of the Gnosis platform. The result is added confidence for developers and partners that Gnosis is the infrastructure they should be building markets on.
NOTE: It is unlikely that this mechanism will be used as game theory and expectations point to users predominantly paying fees in OWL. In the event this mechanism is triggered, we expect the occurrence to be extremely rare.
Two core requirements for the mechanism is that it is both decentralized and costly. The mechanism must be costly in order to eliminate spam or manipulation. The core functionality of the mechanism is as follows: All fees paid in BTC/ETH/Tokens go to an auction contract outside the control of the Gnosis team. If fees exist in the auction contract, any GNO token holder can submit a bid, bidding their held GNO against some amount of fees contained in the auction contract. If the bid is accepted, the GNO will then enter the auction contract and the user will receive the fees specified. When the user’s GNO enters the auction contract, the fee reduction mechanism will be triggered causing a reduction in fees on Gnosis proportional to the total amount of GNO held in this auction contract. The auction contract is one-way and GNO cannot leave this wallet.
Examples of GNO and OWL Utility
Let’s take a look at several example uses for OWL:
We believe our dual token and Core/Services model is optimal to encourage adoption of the Gnosis platform. Adoption should be everyone’s number one goal toward the success of Gnosis as it both increases liquidity (leading to better odds, and encouraging a feedback loop leading to more reliable predictions) and awareness. By having the Gnosis Core layer fee free and with a pay once model by purchasing GNO for the Gnosis Services and Application layers, we can remain incentive compatible for all participants in the system.
IMPORTANT INFORMATION GNO tokens are functional utility tokens within the Gnosis platform. GNO tokens are not securities. GNO tokens are non-refundable. GNO tokens are not for speculative investment. No promises of future performance or value are or will be made with respect to GNO, including no promise of inherent value, no promise of continuing payments, and no guarantee that GNO will hold any particular value. GNO tokens are not participation in the Company and GNO tokens hold no rights in said company. GNO tokens are sold as a functional good and all proceeds received by Company may be spent freely by Company absent any conditions. GNO tokens are intended for experts in dealing with cryptographic tokens and blockchain-based software systems.
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