BASIC is the next-generation crypto finance platform that allows lenders and borrowers from all over the world to better manage their crypto assets with enhanced capital efficiency. Today’s post will cover the Risk Management practices, that are implemented within the platform in order to establish efficient and stable ecosystem and in order to secure all the occuring financial transactions. Let us see the methodologies and tools, that are exploited by BASIC to address all the associated risks, that may occur in any given financial transaction.
BASIC’s Risk Management Practices
BASIC is actively exercising preemptive efforts in order to guarantee efficient and stable financial transactions on its platform, addressing all the associated risks, that may emerge in any given financial transaction. BASIC is applying risk management tools, that assist to alleviate all the associated risks, that can be found within this platform.
Risk classifications ▶ Volatility risk
BASIC has established a risk management system to recognize and address the high volatility of the digital assets. In the case of mortgage loans, there is always a requirement for a liquidation procedure under certain circumstances. Namely, if the market value of the collateral falls below a certain limit, you may be requested to provide additional collateral. If the requested amount of additional collateral is not stored within a specified period, the liquidation procedure will kick in and the required amount of collateral will be liquidated to secure the loan. The BASIC platform performs real-time volatility management practices. There is a tracking process of the price indexes of 6 different crypto exchanges, such as Coinbase, Bitfinex, Binance, Huobi, Bitstamp, and Kraken, where the prices of the crypto assets with an engineered volatility, placed as a collateral or borrowed as a loan in the BASIC’s platform, are tracked and based on them the LTV( Loan-to-Value) ratio is calculated. The abovementioned LTV management, hence risk management is performed by the Smart Risk Manager on an automatic basis. The volatility risk manager is currently programmed to warn and further take some certain actions at the following events and LTV rates:
- At 65% LTV, the borrower receives warning notifications (Early Warning)
- At 75% LTV, the borrower is requested to store additional collateral to diminish LTV to 65% (Margin Call)
- At 85% LTV, the system will be forced to initiate a partial liquidation process to automatically lower the LTV to 75% (Margin Liquidation)
The BASIC platform has a liquidity engine system. It is BitGo’s internal clearing system, which allows you to stream placed orders in real-time, and liquidate large amounts of assets at a fixed price, without the presence of slippage. ▶ Default Risk
This risk could occur independently from the LTV, and two scenarios are probable depending on the nature of the loan (Secured and Unsecured).
The default borrowing period for Basic is set to 3 days after maturity, and if there is an overdue balance outstanding on the day of liquidation, the amount of outstanding balance with a liquidation penalty added will be deducted from the collateral assets.
Once the default occurs, 100% of the borrower’s total CREDIT (credit token) is going to be exterminated. At the same time, assets corresponding to the loan amount are going to be taken out from the Basic Insurance Fund and forced liquidation will kick in to protect the depositors. ▶ Overdue Risk
If the loan interest is not paid and remains in overdue status for a prolonged period of time, the following measures will be taken.
The grace period for overdue interest is set to 3 days after maturity, and if there is an overdue balance outstanding after 3 days, the amount of outstanding balance with a liquidation discount rate (5%) added shall be deducted from the collateral assets.
The grace period for overdue interest is set to 3 days after maturity, and if there is an overdue balance outstanding after 3 days, the amount of outstanding balance shall be withdrawn from the Basic Insurance Fund and 100% of the borrower’s total CREDIT is programmed to be burned. ▶ Counterparty Risk
Counterparty risk, which is prevalent in the trading and investment areas, is the likelihood or probability, that one of the two involved entities in a transaction might default on its contractual obligation. There are two primary sources of the counterparty risk in the process of collateral liquidation. The first one arises when the counterparty cannot make the required payments according to their obligations. The second one occurs, when the counterparty breaks the terms of the contract, hence defaulting on his contractual obligation. The relationship in the financial market is built upon trust. Hence, the counterparty risk or default risk can result in an overall deterioration of the credit market and further lead to a crisis. When there is a transaction being occurred within a platform of the BASIC, BitGo operates as a third party, who secures the process of escrowing the assets of the transacting participants. This risk management practice enables transacting parties to proactively identify and control the counterparty risk at the same level as financial firms. ▶ Slippage and Market Risks
In case of carrying out transactions on multiple digital asset exchanges, you may face a huge issue of inefficient digital asset distribution, which can adversely affect your balance sheet. This situation can further expose you to the Slippage and Market Risk, as the number of assets that need to be liquidated increases. On the contrary, BASIC platform enables easy and quickly offline trading with transacting parties in BitGo, through the virtual journal swaps. This practice, in turn, eliminates the slippage and market risks. ▶ Compliance Violation
Compliance violations can be applied to the withdrawal of assets at the time of the transaction. Currently, the majority of digital asset platform companies randomly distribute assets to multiple digital asset exchanges for trading purposes. In fact, this kind of approach affects the balance sheet and can lead to regulatory compliance violations. The BASIC platform is capable of reducing market and slipper risks, whilst keeping business efficiency at the highest level, by trading with trading partners within the BitGo’s system. This, in turn, will enable you to maintain stable transactions in a quite liquid market. ▶ Legal and Regulatory Compliance Risk
Basic implements strict and thorough anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism-financing preventive measures at the level of traditional financial institutions in accordance with the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations and guidelines. This practice allows to thoroughly verify the identity of the client and to establish anti-money laundering preventive measures, which are both de facto essential factors to ensure the safety and legitimacy of the digital assets handling. To mitigate and identify in advance the risks associated with the compliance or regulation, BASIC’s legal team is staying up-to-date with the legal and regulatory compliances over the crypto assets.
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It's not always success and glory, like it was in previous peasant militia run.
I went with poachers JHUZTYVSZW seed, triple determined. I found another triple determined through seed mining, but map was nowhere near as good. Poachers are good because you already start with 3 good archers, and those are the hardest things to recruit. Also scouting camp composition ability is great, and a little bit of move speed helps. I went for 6 archers, 5 melee, 1 shieldbro. No bannerbro. Very similar to my peasant militia setup. I know seed extremely well this was my second run on that seed, I know where the camp locations are in the beginning, I know generally quite well where the zones are for them to spawn etc.
Grind is overall great, progression speed is all right. I can take almost any fight really early, so I don’t have to skip camps that i find. Limited loot carry capacity hurts. You can recruit extra trash just to carry stuff in their inventory, but it lowers your speed on the map. Anyway builds you find below are great at normal fights, they let me down in monolith. I don’t know if it’s lack of resolve bro, or bad rng rolls, but even around 50 resolve wasn’t enough to just hang there. I don’t think it’s feasible to have resolve potions in those timings I go for, neither crafted armor resolve attachments are feasible. So for the next run I’ll try to solve the resolve issues with my builds..Yeah nimble i'm looking at you... nimble is amazing everywhere but monolith :(. I left kraken for last because I know it’s a nightmare to do with 12 bros, where 6 are low. matack archers, and 1 is low m.attack shieldbro. But I think I’ve figured out how to do kraken in good time very very safely even on water, so stay tuned for my next run :).
Anyway everything I said in previous guides stands true. Here is a little journal on my progression that I wrote along, here are the builds and some comments. You can see the strategy I use in the vids (i wanted to add commentary, i finished run almost two weeks ago, but i didn't find time). My mistake is focusing on doing well in normal fights, but legendary fights are the problem. So in my next run I’ll downgrade my general combat capabilities in favor of legendary fights. I want to do it all under 60 days. I went veteran economy and medium funds, but I guess that’s for pussies, I’m gonna upgrade it to the max next time around.
I utilize footwork on my all frontliners for abusing AI in endless kiting. Here is the build
Max m.def, stamina. Some resolve and hp. Sadly no end pic, cause ehm reasons :). But you can see progression in videos.
Will look wierd to most. It performs as expected. Gonna switch few thing around for better monolith next time. Here is the build
Max mdef, m.attack, some stamina, hp, sprinkle of resolve.
Footwork for endless kiting. Polearm for swinging for 5 and stamina economy. Swinging for 5 increases dps, you can move two tiles and swing. Once and swing twice with berserk. Swing 2h, move, and swing polearm. Again might look weird, but watch some fights how it performs.
Basically unchanged, it's just amazing, grows in power every level. Will carry all standard fights. Here is the build
Some took colossus some took recover, depends on hp rolls. I don't think i'll make any changes here for my next run. Maybe swap 1 perk.
On lvl up, r. attack, m. attack if roll is good, and hp/stamina. I had good archers, which makes polearm attacks unnecessary, throwing stuff is better. But relying on throwing weapons for dps is problematic because of ammunition. We're on the clock so i still use melee often, i don't have luxury of returning to the towns often.
I tried to record interesting fights, and record cca every 10 days, so progression of lvls and equipment would be seen.
Interesting ones are: day 7 undead camp
with ud hero, chosen ones where they get easier with levels, but doable early first on day 23
, goblin city when they start routing after 5 turns, also on green terrain.
Here are notes as i played the run:
Day 1: Rush town with hunter's cabin. Restart until you get at least 1 good ranged bro. I got me one hunter on the second try. No contracts until some frontline is hired, and then only contract for thugs.
Day 2: Rushing golden goose to the south. Got some frontline but only beast and fetch contracts on the way. Got ambition to get us to 12 men.
Day 3: Got to the city, no ambushed trade routes :(, sold everything 4.1 gold. Accept a contract then fill up frontline with trash !. Another decent hunter, weak caravan hand, that hopefully survives to lvl 6 for an event and some other meat to the front. Ambition complete, and finally first battle.
Day 4: 6 batles. 3 dead, 1 downed 2 times. Only 1 contract. Run out of ammo, made it to the harbor city. Sold stuff around 4.2k before recruiting. Contemplaiting camping for a while to fullfill 2k gold ambition, yeah probably right call.
Day 5: Don't fight wolfriders early on. "It's just 4 of them, i'll be carefull".. One dead and a lot of hp + tools in the drain, also injuries. Wasn't worse by sheer luck.
Day 6: Got a whip. Leaders and gheists are on the menu boys!. Gonna go swing by kraken location to pick up the quest.
Day 11: I want to farm barb throwing weapons. To farm them i need lvls and better bows. Sometimes those barb camps come with chosens, to fight those i need barb throwing weapons. Why do i need to farm barb throwing weapons? To farm orcs ofc. Why orcs? Cause they usually have plenty of big camps with warlords called sea of tents, that give a lot of xp and loot.
Day 11: So after i recorded a fight with necro and zombies, i had another, samish one. Except few more zombies. Anyway one of my frontliners went fleeing because "oouueee" sounds or smth.. i guess. That lead to a bit of collapse because i don't have underdog yet. Two bros died, one of them caravan hand that was almost 6 lvl. And then he came from the dead with that shitty undead grin on his face just to taunt me... Bastard. He was there for all 24 battles RIP.
Day 12: Got myself decent hedge knight with sure footing. Rolled an ambition, i have to visit every town (or get friendly with one which is even worse time wise), so that's a little time waster. I need ambitions to raise renown, to get the noble contract ambition. Not for noble contracts, but to start rolling for undead/goblin ambitions which are crucial to the run and you can't get those until you have noble contracts.
Day 13: Another one bites the dust. Running 11 men, one of witch could be ok but has dastard trait, so far i have no brave bros. Who am i kidding he's gonna die before i get rid of dastard anyway found named 330/28 armor guarded by 15 thralls, ezy.
Day 15: Trying to progress visiting all cities ambition while farming goblins in the south. Hit a rough patch some deaths, low hp, low resources, injuries. Missing good % hits. At least i got spiked impaler csbow it rarely drops, because you kill overseers in melee, it's a slight upgrade from a shortbow dps :). I spent everything on recruits, except 3 whips i bought, following logic that i can sort of win with what i have. And frontliners.. i want foowork, i want underdog, i want nimble, but which is more valuable, in what order do i get them? I guess underdog is least important, i tend to get surrounded by lesser dangers, and if i do it's almost exclusively just +5 to hit.
Day 16: I keep getting marginally better archers. I fire one and hire another, he gets to like level 4. Then i hire even better one, 3 star hunter this time. I keep getting a lot of thiefs which is lucky, even 10-12 base m.def but no stars, i still don't have essential shieldbro for monolith.
Day 18: Interesting 4necrosavants + auxilury fight, i didn't even lose a dog here, and got two named shields in the loot. I previously played this seed and this must be randomly generated raid location. One shield is even better than the kraken crafted one in terms of m. def.
Day 19: Sold full stack of loot 17k worth. I increase my capacity to carry by having some cheap guys in reserve to carry more loot. Anyway i spent it all on recruits, there is no other way around it, you buy almost all of them, so they can refresh. The plan is to spend some time in the north fighting and trying to buy me some good shieldbro from the 2citadels and a keep up north. Well i lied i also bought 1 war bow, more like a guilty pleasure than necessity. Ambition to visit cities is done.
Day 22: Another selling loot recruiting session finished, no suitable bros. Have an ambition for a sargent perk guy, usually i have one trashy bro ready with perk point just for that. But i don't have him this time. I recruited lvl 3 retired soldier and gave him sparring session in training hall, hopefully he'll be lvl 4 soon. Other option was to use my archer emergency replacement who needs like 100xp to next level, and waste him by putting rally troops perk on him. Archers may die to some shitty rng so i decided to play it safe and keep him. Another trip to the port north, to get south to farm and recruit some more, if i don't have a shield bro by day 30, i guess it's gg.
Day 25: First post noble contracts ambition roll. No undead, goblin, or orc one in the pool. Took the cart one. I took bags and belts on my archer on lvl 6 just so i can carry more loot, so i get more money, so i can gamble it away recruiting. And all i want at this point, is the same thing i wanted from the beginning one bro with base m.def around 10+ with three stars. And hopefully enough stamina to wear armor and spam indom adrenaline recovery.
Day 26: We got an adequate shield bro. Base m.def 7, 3 stars militia guy. He's not good, but he'll do. The thing is i've been recruiting all game long, and basically almost any background can be good shield bro. There are 3 traits, tiny, paranoid, footwork, that each give +5 m. def. So any of those two and you have 10 base, everything in excess of it is just a bonus. And you need 3 stars. One last requirement is to have enough stamina. You don't need stars you just need not to be gimped, like retired soldier, or swordmaster that gets old trait to further diminish him.
Day 28: Risky fight with necrosavants, cost me couple of dogs for expensive loot. Made a mistake at the end, almost lost an archer. I guess that's why i put so much hp on my archers. Cause i suck. But otherwise unelss disaster happens, it's on a good track. I will no longer spent money on recruits, so my equipment will go up, making it all even safer. Need bows, need more barb throwing weapons. Need good body armor x 12 for kraken. X6 for goblin city. Need more weapons, especially polearms. Grind grind grind, but alteast no more rng frustration at recruitment part of the run.
Day 37: A lot of farming mobs, no undead ambition, got the goblin one. In the process of finding goblins i was attacked by 4 lindwurms and goblin camp got in the battle also. That was a weird one. Didn't get lindwurm blood for the acid flask on kraken, i doubt i'll encounter any more lindwurms, finding one stack is rare enough.
Day 38: Sold a lot of stuff got 32k gold. But no tools and ammo in the south, and i still need to find 1 goblin camp for ambition. Bad RNG, usually there are plenty of them in the south on this seed. This is just going to cost me like +3 days in total.
Day 39: One bro got a drunken trait by an event. I guess i'll have to keep spare equipment just for him now. Finished goblin ambition. Now i have orc ambition.
Day 42: Made it to northern keeps again. Spent a lot of doe. And ironically there is Fletcher in one keep. 3 Hvy csbows no war bows, he always had those, and when i got the cash, he doesn't. This game...
Day 47: Finally undead ambition. Also after visiting orc peninsula, around half way i was out of ammunition, so i fought like 7 battles without using a single arrow, including sea of tents.
Day 49: Undead ambition almost done!. Time to start tying up loose ends. Iljork barb - > Iljork -> Witch hut. Than map wise it would be goblin city -> Kraken -> Mill -> Monolith.
Day 55: Made it to the g. city. They routed after 5 turns. It's always sad that there no better loot in the g city.
Day 60: Well it's a good time, resolve failed me. I feel like farming orc camps slows me down, a lot of swamp, i wonder if it's even worth it. And i need better builds next time.
My name is Kristina Semenova, I am the Head of Investors Relation Department at Platinum, the world’s number one business facilitator.
Our team knows how to start ICO/STO in 2019!
Why are we so sure? Well, our experience speaks for itself: Platinum.fund
But what is the difference between ico and sto? What is the cornerstone of ICO marketing strategy? You will know this after finishing the UBAI courses!
Here’s just a quick preview of our Short Course lesson.
Real World Examples
Multinational accounting firm Ernst and Young found that $400 million of the $3.7 billion USD raised from ICOs (as of January 22, 2018) had been stolen. That is, up to 10% of all ICO funding is virtually being stolen from investors. Though ICO scams are the most common method of theft in the crypto world, some projects will actually operate for a period of time before disappearing with the money. Like in a Ponzi scheme, an exit scam may be planned for later, sometime after a manipulated pump; or some other time the team believes is most opportune to take the money and run. Giza: Giza marketed itself as a platform within which different cryptocurrencies could be stored securely. But after raising $2.4 million in one month, the team deleted the website and stopped replying to emails. Investors were duped by a very convincing whitepaper, and actors had been hired to appear in photographs promoting the project. No investor funds have ever been recovered. Centra: The SEC put an end to fundraising for the Centra ICO and charged the founders Robert Farkas and Sohrab Sharma with orchestrating a fraudulent ICO after they raised $32 million USD. They were promoting the ability to develop financial products backed by VISA and Mastercard, though it was later found that neither partnership was real. One of the major red flags in the Centra project was the use of celebrity endorsements for publicity, reportedly paying champion boxer Floyd Mayweather a significant sum to promote their project. Who wants to leave their Blockchain investment decisions up to Floyd Mayweather, regardless of his unbelievable skill as a boxer and regardless of his own financial success? He should still not influence where you invest your money!
Ponzi Schemes: Bitconnect: This is the most infamous Ponzi scheme in the history of cryptocurrency, and certainly the most damaging. Bitconnect was a Bitcoin-based project that rose to an all-time high of $463 per token on the back of a fictitious trading bot. The Bitconnect scam operated by paying dividends to users, proportional to the number of tokens they held and the number of referrals they made. The BCC tokens were exchanged for the users’ Bitcoin, and the highly sophisticated and wildly successful trading bot would trade BTC for them and distribute profits as dividends. The value of the dividends offered was approximately 1% of the initial investment per day. In other words, that is approximately 3,780% per year in cumulative gain! The referral system was capitalized upon most heavily by many of the biggest crypto YouTube channels, including CryptoNick and Trevon James, both of whom are now under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Shortly after the Bitconnect Token reached its all-time high, they received cease and desist orders from the security regulators of Texas and North Carolina, which caused the owners of the Bitconnect exchange to shut down operations, and the price to plummet.
Davorcoin: Davorcoin was a lending platform very similar to Bitconnect. And Davorcoin was farcically promoted by the same Trevon James crypto Youtuber who promoted Bitconnect, and is currently under investigation by the FBI for promoting Ponzi schemes. The Texas State Securities Board, in likening Davor to Bitconnect, stated that “DavorCoin is telling investors they can earn lucrative profits by investing in a lending program based on a new cryptocurrency known as davorcoin. Investors allegedly purchase davorcoin and then lend it to DavorCoin”. Davorcoin promptly plunged from an all-time high of $180 to very close to zero after a cease and desist order was made against them on the 2nd of February 2018. Useless Ethereum Token: Despite brazenly stating in the name of the project that the token has no use, the UET managed to raise $340,000 in its crowdsale, and saw a significant pump of over 300% on the HitBTC exchange in February of 2018. The scam was an obvious case of pump and dump, with the total trading volume for UET crashing back down to as low as $3 per day, after reaching as high as $350,000 per day during the pump.
It is currently an unfortunate consequence of the decentralized nature of cryptocurrency, but there is a distinct lack of recourse for scammed investors. It is wise to become as well-acquainted with the various indicators of good and bad ICOs as you possibly can. In weighing the factors that will allow you to avoid expensive mistakes, ask yourself in whose favor are the terms of the ICO slanted, yours or the teams? To what extent are you actually likely to profit from this investment? Cryptocurrency is inherently a grey area, whether you are investing in it or not. Investing is another inherently grey area, no matter what the area or object of investing might be. Laws and regulations are not always able to keep up. Trying to define and prove what was or was not a scam is not likely to be as simple as the scammed investor would want it to be. A project can be set up in certain ways to avoid being technically classified or provable as a scam, but the unprepared investor can still be burnt or scammed just as badly. Now we look at more individual indicators that can help you form a valid impression whether or not an ICO or even a fully-fledged exchange-listed coin is a scam or a bona fide investment opportunity.
Contrasting Scam & Legitimate Projects
Presale Bonus/Token Release If the ICO allots massive bonuses to team members, you may leave yourself open to getting dumped on by presale investors if you buy when the project tokens are listed on an exchange. Likewise, if the project has a short lock-up period for developers and founders, you run the risk of them selling as soon as the token is listed on a major exchange. The token release schedule for the founders of a worthwhile project should show long-term team commitment to that project. The Jibrel Network team tokens will be locked up for 5 years before release, and they had no early investor bonus in the main sale. Both of these factors instilled confidence in the JNT ICO investors, and the tokens were sold out weeks before the ICO was due to end. No Presale lock up If Presale investor tokens are not locked up at all for any period after listing, that could easily be a set up for an exit scam after the initial listing. No presale lockup for early investor tokens is a crystal clear warning, the project may be fatally rigged toward those in the inner circle, with little commitment to the long term health or success of that project.
Unsolicited Offers or Unasked for Additions to Groups Characters running scam projects will often add you to Telegram groups out of the blue or send you unsolicited emails with information about their project. Telegram is the most widely used messaging app in the cryptocurrency community and you should familiarize yourself with it to keep yourself in the loop for specific projects in which you invest as well as all kinds of other relevant crypto info. You can adjust the settings on the Telegram app to disallow anonymous additions to cryptocurrency projects if you find yourself bombarded with offers by scammers. Reputable projects at the ICO stage will spread by word of mouth, or by eloquent and meaningful articles posted on their Medium page. A project with serious potential does not need to actively seek participants for their ICO like that. They will often be able to fill their ICO hard cap in a matter of hours, or even just minutes!
Alarm bells, again, immediately, if the project has minimal online presence. The individual team members could be mere fabrications. The entire project could be a farce by utterly inexperienced characters. What if the project leaders are simply unaware of the importance of a strong social media profile? That in itself would be too strange to ignore. Top-level projects will have team members with experience in crypto and the LinkedIn accounts for those members will be easily accessible right there on the project website. You should be able to easily see and evaluate each individual’s experience in their field and ascertain what they bring to the project team. Bitconnect’s anonymous team should have been the only deterrent prospective investors needed to discourage them from putting money into that doomed project. Ethhorse, a current project with anonymous founders and operators should be steered clear of at all costs for the same reasons.
The subreddits or Telegram groups of scam projects will often feature moderators that do not allow any kind of criticism in the group chat. If, in the process of your due diligence, you encounter didactic admins that only wish to silence your questioning of certain aspects of the whitepaper or mechanism of the tokenomics
, you should be concerned. Similarly if you see a coherent critical reply attacked by many different users who refuse to engage the substance of the point being made, that may be a subreddit infested with bots. Projects that have nothing to hide will allow free debate in the chat. Ideally, they hope to develop a positive community that is itself an asset to the long-term success and overall strength of the project. Good projects do not need to automatically brand all criticism as Fear Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD).
One common tactic of scammers is to produce a whitepaper that uses too many buzzwords, and deliberately obfuscates and overcomplicates the explanation of the problem and/or its solution. A good whitepaper clearly and concisely lays out the problem and answer, as well as provides compelling arguments why a Blockchain solution is preferable to the current solution. Another point of concern is a whitepaper that gives unrealistic time frames and goals. Bitconnect’s almost comically optimistic profit projections are a prime example of this, as are the 1,354% yearly gains promised by Plexcoin. Respectable projects will set out development timescales in terms of quarters or years, rather than offering immediate profit projections, which are simply a red flag.
Advisors/Connections in the Cryptoworld
The most prestigious projects will already have partnerships made before the ICO stage, and the worst ones, i.e. the scams, will not mention any such partnerships. Icon (ICX) for example was spawned from a South Korean project named The Loop, a collaboration between 3 Korean universities and the DAYLIFinancial Group. They boasted an advisory panel consisting of the legendary investor Don Tapscott, Jehan Chu and crowdfunding expert Jason Best. On top of a solid team of advisors, good projects will also be visible at major Blockchain events such as the Consensus, and the World Blockchain Forum, etc. Scam projects will be unable to inspire this same level in confidence. As an investor, you should sense a certain presence and expect a certain feeling of trust that should guide you in your investments. After all, it is actually a people-to-people thing you are doing.
Key Stress points upon the Timeline to Identify Scam Projects Post Whitepaper Release The period in the immediate aftermath of the release of the whitepaper can also be decisive in establishing the validity of a project. How a team copes with the roadmap that they have laid out for themselves is key. Valuable insight into the operational efficiency and commitment to the project can be gleaned from the quality of and amount of code committed to GitHub. If you have any experience in computer programming you can see how clean and orderly the code is, which gives insight into the skill of the developers, and in turn the quality of project leaders’ decision-making in hiring team members. Scam projects will have little or no code committed to GitHub, or at best it will be copied and pasted from other projects just to cover their tracks. Start of ICO Sometimes, a scam project, or other project in which you would be better off not investing, will change the terms of the ICO just before the ICO starts. The Key (TKY) ICO doubled the price of tokens on the day before the ICO was due to take place, because the price of NEO had risen so drastically. Currently, the TKY token price is still only half of its ICO price. Initial investors are faced with the prospect of a 50% loss on their investment.
Some particularly greedy scammers will create a scam project with the intent of selling tokens in the ICO for BTC and ETH, and then pumping and dumping their share of the tokens immediately after listing. The team of fraudsters behind Monero Gold used this method after the crowdfunding of their useless ERC-20 token. After listing on CoinExchange.io, the team dumped their tokens until the exchange finally ceased trading. Although it is not uncommon for ICO tokens to sold after listing (just like can happen with shares of stock after an IPO), if the price does not stabilize and massive sell walls are continually placed, a scam is likely taking place and the token is being dumped.
Fake Ethereum Twitter giveaway
You may have noticed Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin’s twitter handle has been changed to Vitalik “Not giving away Eth” Buterin in recent months. This is because a group of devious scammers had created fake accounts with almost exact replicas of his profile (deviating by only one character). The fake accounts promised to deposit 1 whole ETH for every 0.1 ETH the potential sucker deposited into the wallet address provided by the scammer. These fake account “Ether giveaway” scam tweets were set up to be sent in just a matter of seconds after the real person tweeted, and usually always appear immediately after the tweet of the real public figure. Fake bot profiles then came into play, thanking the fake Vitalik, or fake Elon Musk, for holding up their end of the bargain and depositing the ETH as promised. One scammer, or group of scammers, managed to fill a wallet up with almost $20 thousand worth of ETH, which they transferred out, never to be seen or heard from again.
Effect of Scam Customers, Upon the Affected Parties
Of course, this is no fun for the targeted public figure either. They need to take steps to avoid being targeted again. This will mean changing their handle, their username, or making their accounts private. However, the injured party with whom we are most concerned is the unfortunate scammed social media user, who has no chance whatsoever of getting his or her funds back, ever. It is a harsh lesson to learn. But it is a fact of crypto reality. Nearly every one that trades crypto will at least be exposed to frauds or scams in one way or another. In this case, we think it is better to learn about scams by studying them, rather than learn from your own unfortunate and expensive experience. In the case of Mr. Buterin, these incidents were awful public relations for the Ethereum project. It had only been a few years since cryptocurrency as a whole was primarily associated with criminality and seedy transactions on the Darkweb. Any connection with unscrupulous behavior is best avoided at all costs. Negative associations could have been particularly damaging for Ethereum’s brand because the vast majority of ICO fraud is committed using the ERC-20 token as the template for the scam tokens.
Any and all the scamming or fraudulent behavior in the cryptocurrency ecosystem is bound to have a negative impact on the speed at which mainstream uptake finally takes place. Cryptocurrencies, as an emerging asset class, will be painted in the worst possible light. Crypto is aiming to, and is in fact in the process of, causing great disruption in traditional centralized finance and business. Mainstream media organizations are also part of that traditional centralized economy. Press coverage will be damning. Something is happening here, but Mr. Jones doesn’t know what it is.
Legal Recourse for Scams
We clearly understand, there is a possibility of being scammed. We know the scams are happening. The SEC has made some arrests and actually charged people for operating fraudulent ICOs. But it is a struggle to deal with the flood of ICOs coming from anywhere at any time. The SEC filed charges against two founders of a purported financial services startup for orchestrating a fraudulent ICO that raised more than $32million from thousands of investors. As you know from the ICOs we have covered so far, the lack of regulation allows for direct contact and dealing between the entrepreneurs, business owners and potential investors. While we believe this is a blessing according to the founding principles of Bitcoin and other alternate Cryptocurrencies, because it frees us from traditional roadblocks, middle-men, and all kinds of time-consuming procedures; it also leaves investors in a place where there is often little to no hope of ever recovering funds lost in fraudulent schemes.
Actions after a Successful ICO
Good post-ICO practice is characterized by stringent security, well thought-out legal strategy and clear communication. Many projects have paid the price in damage to their reputation for failing to adequately guard customer information, leaving themselves open to phishing attacks by fraudsters. Investors in the Enigma project had half a million dollars stolen from them; and a whopping $8.4 million was defrauded from investors in Veritaseum via phishing attacks. After a successful token distribution, the team’s main focus is initially on switching the enterprise from one primarily focused on fundraising, to superficially at least, a fully-fledged, functioning business. This involves removing most of the token sale-related content from their main webpage, sending newsletters to all successful ICO participants, and sending refunds to those who may have missed the deadline or the hardcap. Then, with the stressful and complicated fundraising stage finally concluded, a portion of the funds raised can be assigned to fuel the growth of the project community. This can involve hiring community managers, forum admins, and social media managers to outsource the job of keeping investors in the loop. The founders can focus on growth strategy and product development. The cultivation of a thriving and energetic community is extremely important. The community will give you free marketing for your product and your business. Community members who believe in the project, and are engaged by professional moderators, can give you very effective promotion to other prospective investors. Communication with community members is a great way to test ideas and gauge sentiment related to various aspects of your project.
The project leads must set aside adequate funds for lawyers. The project will need to address potential future or imminent problems with regulators, at the very least. The transition from fundraising project to full-fledged business can be incredibly challenging, and even more stressful than the ICO itself. The main thing to remember is that your pre-sale and ICO investors are not just silent investors waiting for a return. They are the early adopters of your solution, of your product; they are the community and promoters of your project; and they are the individuals with a vested interest in the financial success of your venture. The ICO environment is not as heavily regulated, so quarterly and/or semi-annual reporting is not required the way it is in the traditional world. That means your own style of effective communication about the progress and key developments on your project matters even more. In the ICO world, you communicate with your press releases, social media, and Medium posts. You also communicate by the very nature of your relations with your exchange, and relationships with your cornerstone investors. Effective communication and good business relationships can play a prominent role in the success or failure of your venture (by token liquidity and valuation).
If your investors start to lose interest, and stop trading your token on the exchange, liquidity will dry up and cause increasingly volatile price swings. You need to keep certain things in mind, and follow effective practices to maintain a happy and motivated community.
Social Media & Medium
In addition to your website, your social media & Medium blog most likely formed a significant part of your ICO preparations. Your purpose pivots after the ICO from one of promotion to one of communication. Consistent, informative and material Medium blogs, also Facebook and Twitter updates, ensure that investors remain engaged and well-informed of what the company is up to. Frequent activity in this space makes investors feel much more comfortable. You can foster a kind of organic community expansion that is consistently advertising your project to potential new members.
Cornerstone Investors & Exchanges
As we mentioned, your relationship with investors in the ICO world is different from that of the traditional silent IPO minority equity partners. Consistent, Transparent & Honest communication is incredibly important here. Even if an ICO is struggling to overcome a problem or whatever issues are occurring, honest communication from the team is key to business survival. You should think of and treat your exchange like a business partner too, a very important one at that. Exchanges provide liquidity for you and your investors. That liquidity is like the blood for your business. Many top exchanges demand nothing less than absolute honesty and integrity, it is imperative to maintain strong and comfortable relationships with exchanges. Everything we have said so far, also applies to your Telegram channel and forums too. These give you another great opportunity to build a thriving community. Team members and investors can enjoy lively debates in their Telegram channels. This can be constructive discussion, or critical commentary too. But it is always valuable as a direct link between the team and the community. It is always good to know how people are feeling and what they expect from you and your project. You are able to use your Telegram channel and forums to consistently adapt your marketing and communication strategy. Keep your investors as happy and comfortable as possible, and you will be more likely to attract new investors and allocations. Other forums around the internet operate more or less in the same manner as Telegram.
After a successful funding round with the hardcap reached and time to spare, legal counsel has been secured, and the community is flourishing, the team will prepare for their first listing by paying the exchange fee and waiting for the announcement by the exchange. Unless they are willing to pay exorbitant fees for an immediate listing on Binance for example, teams will usually settle for an initial listing on a second-tier exchange. The fee charged by an exchange depends on many different factors that we will cover in more detail in the next section.
ICO Company actions after a Successful ICO
Real World Case Study
The Basic Attention Token (BAT) project, when used in conjunction with the Brave Browser, allows users to pay micro-fees in BAT to their most-used sites. The idea was conceived by Brendan Eich, the inventor of Javascipt and former CEO of Mozilla Firefox. Investors absolutely pounced on it at ICO and the project raised an amazing $35million in under 30 seconds. The BAT/Brave project has delivered on time on nearly all of its targets, helped in no small part by having a working product, the Brave Browser, for over a year before the token launch. The project secured a listing on the premier exchange, Binance, in November 2017.
A project can suffer through a disappointing funding phase and, for example, fail to reach 75% of its hardcap. The team will be only partially funded. Though they may be able to initiate the project, the value proposition of the token has been compromised, potentially forever. The market has spoken. There is limited faith in the team’s ability to complete or carry out their project. Failure to reach a hardcap is a serious obstacle on the project road map. This will mean massive revisions to the timescales for development and listing. Such a project may have to be content listing on decentralized exchanges for a period of time and they will lose any post-ICO hype that could have helped the project price to “moon” early on. There is less money to be allocated. Each section of the business will be underfunded compared to the original plan. There can be delays in code development, exchange listing, marketing and community development as well.
Calling the Tezos ICO a disappointment might seem strange considering they raised over $232million. But this open-source, smart contracts fintech platform became a victim of its own success post-ICO by devolving into multiple class-action lawsuits between the founders and its foundation chairman. They suffered from a distinct lack of clearly defined roles and expectations on key positions. There was infighting at the boardroom level. This all caused an as yet unresolved delay in listing and development. This is also one example why a capped ICO can be more desirable for investors than an uncapped ICO. If the team have a set amount of capital to work with, an amount that isn’t absolutely ridiculous, like in the case of Tezos, perhaps the resultant greed and discord is less likely. Although it may not be so easy for speculative investors to make a profit from an uncapped ICO with such a massive initial market cap, it is a very impressive feat of fundraising nonetheless. Tezos’s post ICO market cap of $232million is already 64th of all projects, and would have to perform brilliantly on listing to maintain this position.
Company actions after a Failed ICO
Failed ICOs can mean either fundraising initiatives that have failed to reach the softcap and will therefore not be economically viable, or fraudulent projects whose sole intention was to steal from investors and do an exit scam. We’ve already covered scams and fraud projects in detail, but what happens when an ICO just fails to raise the requisite funds? Projects that are legitimate, with honest founders and developers, refund the ETH or BTC deposited by investors as quickly as possible if the softcap is not reached. The same process that is followed by ICOs that are oversubscribed is employed by those that have failed to raise enough capital. The process of returning funds back to the sender ideally should take a period of days, but more likely will take a few weeks. The Sappy Network, advised by Dan Tapscott, failed to come anywhere near to their funding goals. They are currently in the process of sending all investor funds back to the wallets from which they came. The statement from the founders read as a textbook example of how you should react to failure with the founder stating “In the spirit of transparency and honesty, we are sharing with the community that we did not reach the soft cap, and thus we will be honoring our terms and conditions and returning the Ethers to all contributors”
A bottleneck developed in the ICO market after the explosion of crypto prices in 2017. There was a massive increase of ICO teams on all stages along the pathway from start-up to fully listed crypto asset. Certainly, a huge part of the value proposition for both the token and the project depends on securing a listing on an exchange. It is precisely the liquidity of the token as a valuable asset on a free market exchange, that determines or even defines its value. The liquidity is what makes tokens attractive to investors, but that liquidity simply does not exist without a platform for the exchange. Unfortunately for new projects, the balance of power is heavily weighted in favor of large centralized exchanges that can pick and choose which tokens to list, and the timescale within which listing will occur. Each large exchange has its own list of pros and cons as well as its own specific procedure for coin/token listing. They also have their own particular ethos regarding the type of projects they prefer to list. ERC-20 tokens will be available for trade immediately on decentralized exchanges (IDEX Forkdelta) but those platforms are generally quite low volume, and certainly not a long term solution. Projects must often pay huge fees to be listed on the larger centralized exchanges. At first those fees will be prohibitive. The usual route is to initially list on a more reasonably priced smaller exchange like Kucoin or Gate.io.
Major centralized exchanges have the power to list anything they want, and they also each have a unique structure that projects must adhere to if they wish to be listed. Each potential new listing will undergo a rigorous examination by the exchange operators to test the feasibility for listing the token. An exchange will likely have forms available on its website that you can fill out to give them all the necessary initial information. If a particular project and token qualify for listing, the team will invariably be put under a NDA, Non-Disclosure Agreement, to avoid any insider trading or other regulatory problem
s. In the case of larger exchanges like Binance, there is a period within which owners of a newly listed coin or token can transfer them to the exchange in preparation for trading. This is a fantastic opportunity for traders to make use of the likely pump that occurs after a new token is listed on a large exchange. It is common to see up to 100% increases on the first day of trading, and a subsequent dump of up to 50% or more can follow. This allows traders holding the coin already, to sell for a good profit, and maybe buy back in at a much lower price too, if they think that is a good idea.
There are no definitive figures available to the public regarding fees that major exchanges charge new projects to list. Binance, Bitfinex, Kraken and Bittrex have all been quoted as saying that they do not charge any fee at all but this is almost definitely untrue. Knowledgeable industry insiders estimate between $500,000 and $1,000,000 USD for listing on a top-tier exchange. (There have been more rumors of 7 figure exchange listing fees since January 2018 too). This figure will vary greatly from project to project. Various factors can affect how an exchange determines the fee for a particular project. These are some of the most important ones: Market Maker Service Required Whether or not the client project requires liquidity services directly from the exchange, or can connect proprietary ones via API, will lead to a huge reduction in listing cost.
Type of Token (ERC-20 NEP-5 or DAG) Not all tokens are created equal in the listing process. ERC-20 tokens and BTC based tokens have code architecture that will almost certainly be preferred by the exchange. NEO based tokens (NEP-5) such as Ontology will be far most costly to integrate because separate new wallets have to be built to facilitate NEO transactions. The costs involved in integrating Direct Acyclic Graph projects such as Nano into the exchange structure are even worse. Expected Daily Volume Exchanges derive their profits largely from transaction fees and withdrawal fees. The trading volume a new token is likely to bring in will have a great influence on the computation of the exchange listing fee. Exchange Listing Procedures Evaluation Different exchanges have different rules for new listings. A new project must of course abide by specific rules for that exchange before they are allowed to list there. There are procedures that must generally be followed for the most noteworthy exchanges. You can get a good idea of the hurdles to be overcome before listing can take place.
Ongoing relationship with Exchanges
Exchanges, usually Huobi or Kucoin, will sometimes make it essential for newly listed tokens to engage in “trading competitions” after listing. Competitions can last between 2 weeks, or a month or more, aiming to increase the trading volume for that token, thereby increasing trading fees collected by the exchange, and giving the project extra publicity too. The whales may have made a nice profit already and be very happy about it; but the project token can still get stuck in a long period of stagnation and a loss of post-ICO hype. Once a coin or token has been successfully registered for trading on a particular exchange, the project must focus on maintaining regulatory compliance and paying things like annual maintenance fees too. Exchanges can investigate and delist coins or tokens to see if they have fallen below a certain standard set by the exchange. The exchange is concerned about such things as: an extended period with an extremely low volume; a team member connection to an exit scam; or other such immoral/illegal behavior.
Post ICO Company Evaluation
After a presumably successful ICO, the necessary funds have been obtained, and the real business, the real team challenge is now, to bring the project to life as a bona fide disruptive Blockchain endeavor! The core advantage of the ICO method of funding business startups is the lack of regulatory hurdles to navigate with regards to fundraising and fund allocation. The funds that have been raised have, in effect, been freely given to the project leads to do with what they will in a no-strings-attached transaction. Of course, there are still strings attached in that the team are tasked with making that money grow for the investors. But there is no regulatory oversight of the process. The regulatory freedom is a double edge sword. It gives a good team freedom to work however they want; and it also allows for unscrupulous thieves to use the ICO process to defraud investors of their ETH and BTC.
Advantages of being Post ICO From Investor Perspective
You should have little to fear in terms of fraud from a project in which you have invested, if you have done your due diligence correctly. You can expect the tokens to be distributed, and the exchange listing to take place as expected. And you know your project is totally legitimate. There are different ways to think about your ICO tokens after the crowd sale has concluded. If you are a speculative investor looking for a quick flip, you can gauge the correct moment and sell anytime you like, assuming the ICO has been well-received by the markets.
From Team Perspective
The post-ICO period is, from the point of view of the team, a period where stress and responsibility for the safety of investor funds is passed, in the form of ICO tokens, from the team to the investors themselves. This responsibility for tokens is replaced with the stress of building the actual company itself, and succeeding in the business as planned. A small portion of the responsibility for the project’s success is also passed on to the exchange that has listed the tokens. This is especially true if market makers have been employed by the team or the exchange to provide liquidity. After the ICO has concluded, all funds are released to the project team immediately, so they can start building their business brand, and tackling each step on the road map right away. The freedom with which startups can operate is one of the main reasons behind the explosion in Blockchain businesses in 2017. With the ICO funds safe, and money being put to work on various areas essential to the growth of the project, and the tokens already distributed to investors, the risk of fraud is greatly diminished. If KYC and Anti-money Laundering procedures have been followed correctly during the ICO phase, the risk of phishing attacks and theft will also be marginal now. At any rate, with tokens safely delivered to all participants, the responsibility has passed from the team to the investor.
From Team Perspective
The release of all funds and the freedom to allocate them with no supervision, as cited above, is certainly a tremendous advantage empowering the team to fulfil the entire breadth of their vision unimpeded. But it does have its drawbacks. If there is a mistake made in the allocation of funds, or an unforeseen problem arises, there is nowhere to turn to, and no means of generating further money via crowdfunding. The ICO is over; it is finished. The project simply has to work with what it has. Your community can sometimes turn against you when the market is going down. Times like that just add to the already intense pressure of presiding over a startup Blockchain business.
The DAICO, or Decentralized Autonomous Organization Initial Coin Offering, is a means to integrate a more specific, rigorous and regimented smart contract schedule into the ICO process. Doing so will eliminate fraudulent ICOs, exit scams, pump and dumps, and many of the other disadvantages listed above. The DAICO method, proposed by Ethereum creator, Vitalik Buterin, will merge the core concepts of both an ICO and a DAO to leverage the most relevant features of both, in order to solve the main problems in the ICO method. For example, to eliminate the risk of an exit scam, the release of funds will be spread out over a period of time, with the next allotment only being released when a certain set of parameters are met.
Buterin explains that the DAICO method will provide user protection in a manner not present in the current ICO model, ensuring funds are not misspent or used in any way contrary to the intention of investors. In simpler terms the DAICO will operate as follows: The DAICO will start with a smart contract by its executors that can set whether this is to be a capped or uncapped round of fundraising (amongst many other options) as well as including KYC requirements. After these settings have been configured, the DAICO is set into “contribution mode” and presented to the public. This stage will function identically to a normal ICO with ETH exchanged for project tokens. Once the funding period has elapsed, or the hardcap has been met, investors will have the ability to set the “tap” for the collected funds. This will set the amount per second, or amount per minute, that will be available to the executor to develop that specific portion of the project to which those funds have been assigned. If investors believe at any point that the team is misspending funds or otherwise wasting time, etc., the investors have significant options to take. Of course they could choose to release more funds to the team. But, they could also stop the tap altogether, and stop the entire ICO, by voting, and actually release all unused funds back to their own wallets from which the investment had first been made!
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